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41 terms

World Geography

Human Geography Chapter 4
STUDY
PLAY
Culture
The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society.
Society
A group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and a culture
Ethnic group
a group of people who share language, customs, and a common heritage
Innovation
taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need
Diffusion
the spread of ideas, objects, or traits from one culture to another
Cultural Hearth
a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures
Acculturation
When a society changes because it accepts or adopts an innovation
Dialect
the version of a language spoken by people of a particular region or social group
Religion
the belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintainers of the universe, as well as the system of beliefs itself
Birthrate
the number of live births each year per 1,000 people
Fertility Rate
the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime
Mortality Rate
the number of deaths per thousand people
Infant mortality rate
the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births
Rate of natural increase
the percentage by which a population grows in a year.
Population pyramid
a graphic device that shows gender and age distribution of a population
Push-pull factors
Push-Leads one away from home country. Pull-Attracts immigrants to a particular country
Population Density
The average number of people who live in a measurable are, such as a square mile.
Carrying Capacity
The number of organisms (people) a piece of land can support.
State
an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs
Nation
a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity
Nation-state
the name of a territory when a nation and a state occupy the same territory
Democracy
Citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected representatives
Monarchy
A ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies.
Dictatorship
a form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority
Communism
Government and economic system where nearly all political power and means of production are held by the government in the name of the people.
Landlocked
Completely surrounded by land with no direct access to the ocean
Urban geography
the study of how people use space in cities
City
Areas with large populations that are centers of business and culture
suburbs
political units touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city
Metropolitan Area
a functional area including a city and its surrounding suburbs and exurbs, linked economically
Urbanization
the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result
Central Business District
the core of a city which is almost always based on commercial activity
Economy
the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people
Economic system
the way people produce and exchange goods
Command economy
a type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production. Also called a Planned Economy.
Market Economy
Production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers.
Natural resources
materials on or in the earth that have economic value
Infrastructure
the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems
per capita income
the average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit
gross national product (GNP)
the total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year
gross domestic product (GDP)
the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time