Human Geography Chapter 4


The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society.


A group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and a culture

Ethnic group

a group of people who share language, customs, and a common heritage


taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need


the spread of ideas, objects, or traits from one culture to another

Cultural Hearth

a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures


When a society changes because it accepts or adopts an innovation


the version of a language spoken by people of a particular region or social group


the belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintainers of the universe, as well as the system of beliefs itself


the number of live births each year per 1,000 people

Fertility Rate

the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime

Mortality Rate

the number of deaths per thousand people

Infant mortality rate

the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births

Rate of natural increase

the percentage by which a population grows in a year.

Population pyramid

a graphic device that shows gender and age distribution of a population

Push-pull factors

Push-Leads one away from home country. Pull-Attracts immigrants to a particular country

Population Density

The average number of people who live in a measurable are, such as a square mile.

Carrying Capacity

The number of organisms (people) a piece of land can support.


an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs


a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity


the name of a territory when a nation and a state occupy the same territory


Citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected representatives


A ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies.


a form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority


Government and economic system where nearly all political power and means of production are held by the government in the name of the people.


Completely surrounded by land with no direct access to the ocean

Urban geography

the study of how people use space in cities


Areas with large populations that are centers of business and culture


political units touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city

Metropolitan Area

a functional area including a city and its surrounding suburbs and exurbs, linked economically


the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result

Central Business District

the core of a city which is almost always based on commercial activity


the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people

Economic system

the way people produce and exchange goods

Command economy

a type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production. Also called a Planned Economy.

Market Economy

Production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers.

Natural resources

materials on or in the earth that have economic value


the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems

per capita income

the average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit

gross national product (GNP)

the total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year

gross domestic product (GDP)

the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time

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