India and China
Terms in this set (25)
information technology (IT)
the use of technology to move, record, and process information. IT includes computers, communication satellites, cell phones, and the Internet.
to hire someone outside a company to do work that was once done inside the company. Information technology has made it possible to outsource jobs to businesses in other countries
the ability of one country to produce a good or provide a service at a lower cost or more effectively than another country
India is the second most populous country in the world, with only China having a larger population.
India is also divided by religion, with the two main faiths being Hinduism and Islam.
It is one of the world's poorest countries, with more than a fourth of all Indians living below the poverty line
India is ruled by an elected government. This makes the country the largest democracy in the world
Indian law says that all children up to the age of 14 are required to go to school.
-However, only about half of India's children actually attend school to that age. As a result, about a third of the country's population is illiterate.
-One reason is poverty
-Another reason is the effect of the caste system. Many Indians still link education to caste. People expect children who are born into high castes to be well educated. However, they don't expect this for children born into low castes.
a version of a language that is spoken in a specific area
an area that uses the same clock time. Earth is divided into 24 standard time zones. Clocks in each zone are set to the same hour and minute.
In 1958, Mao launched a program called the Great Leap Forward
which was a plan to help China become a modern industrial country. In other countries, such modernization has been achieved through the use of new technology, such as factory machines and computers. However, Mao thought that China could "leap forward" by getting more work out of its huge
Great Leap Forward Goals
-increase the production of steel. Across the country, small "backyard furnaces" were set up, and people were told to melt down their metal possessions.
- Another goal was to increase food production, and small farms were lumped together to create large factory farms.
how it failled
Despite people's hard work, the Great Leap Forward did not turn China into an industrial giant. Production did not increase as Mao had anticipated. At the same time, there were severe droughts across China, resulting in famine. More than 20 million people died of starvation between 1958 and 1962. Those deaths were a tragic reminder that China could no longer support its rapidly growing population.
After Mao's death in 1976, the Chinese government took steps to control population growth. In 1979, the government began a family-planning program known as the one-child policy. This program limited each married couple to just one child. The government rewarded couples who followed the policy and punished those who did not.
The one-child policy is still in effect in China, but there have been changes. The focus now is on rewards rather than punishments. Families receive benefits, including cash, for having just one child. In some rural areas, couples are allowed to have a second child. Furthermore, punishments for having more children than allowed are less severe than in the past. Overall, though, Chinese families still must strictly limit the number of children they have
China's population is still growing, but at a much slower rate.
The Benefits: Slower Population Growth
-It has reduced the strain on food and water supplies, and it has lessened the problem of having too many workers for too few jobs.
- Mothers and babies tend to be healthier in small families. With fewer children to support, parents have more money to spend on other things. With fewer children to care for, women have more time for a career.
The Costs: Slower Population Growth
-Many people don't want to be told how many children they can have, especially in rural areas where large families are a tradition.
-Chinese families prefer having sons because sons continue the family name. They are also expected to care for aging parents. Also, there are fewer children overall to care for older family members.
-some couples choose to end a pregnancy and try again for a boy. This practice is illegal. In the future, this imbalance may lead to a shortage of wives for young men in China.
-Due to the one-child policy, many parents lost their only child in the earthquake. The government decided to allow these parents to have another child, if they could. But many were too old or otherwise unable to have children, making the disaster even more painful.
In the United States, mercury pollution from China has been discovered from California to New England.
China has the second-largest consumption of energy in the world, exceeded only by energy consumption in the United States.
-As its population grows, China's energy needs will expand.
- When burned, it pollutes the air, and diseases related to air pollution have become leading causes of death in China
The Proposed Solution
- hydroelectric power: China began construction of the world's largest dam.
-can produce more electricity than any other hydroelectric plant in the world. And they do so without polluting the air.
- help river shipping. Before the dam was built, the Three Gorges area was difficult to navigate by boat. The lake that has formed behind the dam is much safer for river travel. Locks lift boats from the river below the dam up to the level of the lake. Now that the dam and the locks are complete, shipping on the river is expected to increase rapidly, and, at the same time, shipping costs should drop by about a third.
-When water backed up behind the dam, these archeological sites disappeared, and all that they could have revealed to historians about China's distant past is now lost.
-drowned many cities, villages, farms, etc
-As the lake filled, hundreds of plant and animal species lost their habitats. The Chinese river dolphin and the Chinese paddlefish are two threatened species
-Finally, the dam sits along an earthquake fault. Some scientists worry that the weight of the dam and the water it holds may make a major earthquake more likely to occur. If such a quake damaged the dam, a wall of water from the reservoir could rush downstream, causing a disaster worse than any previous Yangtze flood.
-His government controlled the economy, with government officials deciding what goods should be produced and at what price. The government also controlled who should do what job and for what pay.
- the Cultural Revolution was a disaster. Many people who were suspected of not being loyal to Mao were sent to prison. Schools were closed as students joined the revolution. Meanwhile, factory and farm production dropped because there weren't enough workers. The country was in chaos.
The Proposed Solution
-They hoped that foreign companies would start businesses, create jobs, and bring modern technology to China.
-Foreign companies demanded far more freedom than the government was willing to give to Chinese businesses.
-China addressed this problem by setting up special economic zones (SEZs). These special areas have laws that are different from those in the rest of the country. In China's SEZs, businesses have the freedom to decide what goods to produce and at what prices to sell them. Most of the goods that are produced in special economic zones are for export to other countries.
-China's SEZs have created millions of new jobs. often filled by migrant workers from rural areas
-With this extra money, their families are able to improve their own standard of living.
-widening income gap between rich and poor. China's booming SEZs have created a lot of wealth, but that wealth has not been spread evenly throughout the country. Much of China remains very poor, and the income gap between rich and poor may lead to unrest if it continues to widen.
-These migrant workers often find only low-paying, part-time jobs, and are sometimes unable to find work at all. Some turn to crime in order to survive.
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