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Brain & Behavior: Drugs and Addiction
Terms in this set (52)
pertaining to the scientific study of drugs
drugs that influence subjective experiences and behavior by acting on the nervous system
What are the methods of drug administration?
What does oral ingestion do in terms of drug administration?
ease and safety but can be unpredictable
What does injection do in terms of drug administration?
subcutanteous, intramuscularly or intravenously directly to the brain from the bloodstream
What does inhalation do in terms of drug administration?
through the nose or mouth (problems: regulating dosage and damage to the lungs)
What does absorption do in terms of drug administration?
through mucous membranes (ex:snorting cocaine)
What has to happen for drugs to reach the CNS?
the drugs must pass through the blood brain barrier which is a protective filter of the CNS
How do drugs work throughout the CNS?
some drugs act diffusely in the CNS while others are more specific to binding/influence
Drug metabolism definition
the stimulation of conversion of active drugs to nonactive forms by enzymes synthesized in the liver
Drug tolerance definition
a state of decreased sensitivity to a drug that develops or a result of exposure to it.
The form of drug tolerance that arises when repeated exposure to the drug causes receptors to be up-regulated or down-regulated.
-makes body less responsive to the brain
binding of a drug or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of receptors to decrease.
increase in number of NT receptors to compensate for lack of substance
situation specific tolerance, based on pairing of drug administration with specific environmental cues related to drug-taking
Maximal tolerance effects when
drug is delivered in the same situation as it was previously. it is easy to overdose in a new environment
Tolerance may only occur to some effects but not others meaning
others may increase in sensitivity
Drug sensitization definition
increasing sensitivity to a drug
Are drug tolerances mechanisms the same across people
no, they vary
Withdrawal syndrome definition
due to sudden elimination of a drug
- the body has made physiological changes to compensate for the drugs presence
With withdrawal syndrome what effects to patients experience?
effects are opposite to the initial effects of the drug (happy with drug and sad without)
Physical dependency on drugs is true when
you suffer withdrawal reactions after you stop taking a drug
habitual drug users who continue to use drugs despite adverse health effects on their health/social/occupational/physical lives.
-Repeated efforts to stop.
-Addicts take drugs bc of reasons other than combatting withdrawal symptoms
What three parts of the brain deal with addiction?
the prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area, and the nucleus accumbens
What is required for an "addiction" by the DSM 5
causes personal distress or inability to function meaning it interferes with social/occupational/physical spheres
Physical Dependence Theory
This theory states that addiction is due to the development of tolerance and the avoidance of withdrawal.
Positive- Incentive Theory
Drug use continues due to craving for the drugs effects
-when substances repeatedly stimulate the reward center, the center develops a hypersensitivity to the substances
-overtime positive incentive increases and outweighs the actual effects of the drug
habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation
The condition that exists when a person must continue to take a drug in order to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving for the drug.
Name the five most commonly abused drugs
alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine and other stimulants
the opiates (heroin and morphine)
Low doses→ stimulate neural activity / facilitate social interaction
Moderate doses→ impair cognitive, perceptual, verbal, and motor skills
High doses→ cause loss of consciousness
Very high doses → can suppress respiration, death
Nausea / vomiting
Convulsions - can be lethal
Alcohol affects the brain in a number of ways
Increases (prolongs) the actions of GABA
More Cl- ions enter neurons
Affects NMDA receptors (glutamate)
Reduces the flow of Ca++ ions into neurons
Increases dopamine release
Alcohol increases hypothermia
Dilates blood vessels, increases heat dissipation
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
-Alcohol consumption during pregnancy:Teratogen
High doses: diffuse effects
Low birth weight
Brain damage from impaired neurotrophic support (CAMs), and apoptosis
No "safe" time to drink
-Naturally occurring liquid alkaloid
-Works at cholinergic (nicotinic) receptors
-activates receptors then blocks them- first increases firing then decreases it
Cocaine and Amphetamines
-Increase neural (behavioral) activity
-Cocaine (hydrochloride) and its derivatives (crack) are the most commonly abused stimulants
-Produces feelings of energy, self-confidence and euphoria
-Crack is more variable, impure, and is smoked (harder to study its effects)
In the brain: in the nucleus accumbens Blocks reuptake of dopamine- causing them to remain active in the synapse
A drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body.
-increases affect of NT
-drugs that oppose or block the action of a particular neurotransmitter
ex: decreases in GABA causes decrease in Cl-- neurons fine more
-endogenous ligand made in the body is called: anandamide, which bind to cannabinoid receptors
-THC bind to presynaptic GABA neurons which inhibit gaba neurons releasing more dopamine
What three structures deal with marijuana
basal ganglia, hippocampus, and cerebellum
what can amphetamine produce and degree
Amphetamine can produce psychosis but is worse because it is more addictive, more tolerance, more withdrawl
-natural analgesic from the sap of the poppy plant
-helps with cough and diarrhea
In the Brain:
-opiates bind to opiate receptors in the brain
-reduce neuron firing ability, pain reduction and relaxation
endogenous opiates: mu and kappa opioid receptors
"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
Endogenous opioids found in nerve endings of cells in the brain and spinal cord that bind to opioid receptor
neuroimaging stimulants: meth stimulates excess of what
methamphetamine stimulates excess release of dopamine
Dopamine neurons that project from the substantia nigra to the basal ganglia
dopamine pathway: projections from ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens (abnormal activity in this pathway in schizophrenia)
-includes the nucleus accumbens
what is hedonic value
LIKING the actual pleasure associated with the drug
environmental cues and drugs
conditioned drug tolerance, experience withdrawal symptoms
Two key methods for measuring drug-produced reinforcement in lab animals
drug self administration and conditioned place preference
What neurotransmitter is predominately associated with pleasure?
- part of mesolimbic reward system
-DA release represents a common final event associated with the reinforcing effects of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine, PCP, and alcohol
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