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The study of the structure or morphology of the body and how the body parts are organized.


The study of the functions of body parts, what they do and how they do it.


The study of the diseases of the body.

Basic reference systems of bodily organization

Directions, planes, cavities, and structural units.


Uppermost or above

Inferior (Caudal)

Lowermost or below.

Anterior (Ventral)

Toward the front.

Posterior (Dorsal)

Towards the back.

Cephalad (Cranial)

Toward the head.


Nearest the midline of the body.


Toward the side or away from the midline of the body.


Nearest the point of attachment or origin.


Away from the point of attachment.

Midsagittal Plane

Vertically divides the body through the midline into two equal portions or halves.

Sagittal Plane

Any plane parallel to the midsagittal or median plane vertically diving the body into unequal right and left portions.

Horizontal (Transverse) Plane

Any plane dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.

Frontal (Coronal) Plane

One that divides the anterior and posterior portions of the body at right angles to the sagittal plane.

Body has two major cavities.

Dorsal Cavity and the ventral cavity.


The organs of any cavity.

Dorsal cavity

Contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate the body's functions. Cranial cavity and the Spinal cavity.

Cranial Cavity

Contains the brain.

Spinal cavity

Contains the spinal cord.

Ventral cavity

Contains organs that are involved in maintaining homeostasis. Thoracic cavity and Abdominopelvic cavity.

Thoracic cavity

Surrounded by the rib cage and contains the heart in a pericardial cavity, and the two lungs the pleural cavities.


Found between the two pleural cavities and contains the heart, thymus gland, lymph and blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and nerves.


The muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.

Abdominopelvic cavity

Second subdivision of the ventral cavity that contains the kidneys, stomach, liver and gallbladder, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas, and the ovaries and uterus.


Refers to the walls of a cavity.


Refers to the covering on an organ.


The smallest units of life.


Aqueous colloidal solution of various proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and inorganic salts that are organized into structures referred to as organelles.


Epithelial, connective, muscle, or nervous.

Epithelial tissue

Covers surfaces and protects both the outer suface like the skin and inner surfaces of organs like the intestine, forms glands, and lines cavities of the body.

Connective tissue

binds together and supports other tissues and organs.

Muscle tissue

Characterized by elongated cells that generate movement by shortening or contracting in a forcibile manner. There are three types of muscle tissue.

Skeletal muscle tissue

Voluntary muscle pulls on bones and causes body movements.

Smooth muscle tissue

Involuntary muscle is found in the intestines where it pushes food along the digestive tract. Also found in arteries and veins.

Cardiac muscle tissue

found only in the heart.

Nervous muscle tissue

composed of nerve cells forming a coordinating system of fibers connecting the numberous sensory and motor structures of the body.


Group of organs.

Integumentary system

Made up of two layers epidermis and dermis. It includes the skin, hair, nails, sebaceious glands, and sweat glands.

Integumentary system function

Insulation of the body, protection of the body from environmental hazards, and regulation of body temperature and water.

Skieletal system

Bones, cartilage, and membranous structures associated with bones.

Skeletal system function

Protectes the soft and vital parts of the body and provides support for body tissues. Its bones act as levers for movement.

Skeletal system

Manufactures blood cells in red bone marrow and stores fat in yellow bone marrow.

Muscular system

consists of muscles, fasciae, tendon sheaths, and bursae.

Muscular system function

Skeletal muscles pull on bones to allow movement.

Nervous system

Consists of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, and the sensory and motor structures of the body.

Nervous system function

controlling, correlating and regulatting the other systems of the body.

Endocrine system

Consists of the endocrine glads (ductless glands), the master gland, or pituitary, controls the other glands.

Endocrine system function

Chemically regulate the body's functions.

Cardiovascular system

consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries.

Cardiovascular system function

Pump, distribute blood which carries oxygen, nutrients and wastes to and from the cells.

Lymphatic system

lymph nodes, thymus gland, the spleen, and the lymph vessels.

Lymphatic system function

drain tissue spaces of excess interstitial fluids and absorb fats from the intestine and carry them to the blood. Protects the body from disease.

Respiratory system

Nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

Respiratory system function

Bring oxygen to and eliminates carbon dioxide from the blood.

Digestive system

Alimentary canal(mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus) with assoc. glands(salivary, liver, and pancreas.)

Digestive system function

Convert food into simpler substances.

Urinary system

Two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra.

Urinary system function

Chemical regulation of the blood, the formation and elimination of urine, and the maintenance of homeostasis.

Reproductive system

Consists of the ovaries uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in females. Testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, and urethra in males.

Reproductive system function

Maintenance of sexual characteristics and the perpetuation of our species.


The maintenance of the internal environment of the body.

Homeostasis i.e.

Blood sugar levels, body temperature, heart rate, and the fluid environment of the celss.


composed of cells integrated into tissues serving a common function.


a group of organs that perform a common function.

Claude Bernard

First scientist to discuss the significance of homeostasis.

ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)

Chemical fuel that allows the body cells to do work and function.


The smallest particles of an element that maintain all the characteristics of that element.


Carries a positive charge.


No charge


Lighter particles that orbit the nucleus at some distance. Negative charge.


Substance whose atoms all contain the same number of protons and neutrons which makes them electically neutral.

John Dalton

proposed the atomic theory


element found in all living things.


different kinds of atoms of the same element

atomic number

number of protons or electrons.

Periodic table

arranges the elements by increasing atomic number.


Atoms combine chemically with one another to form bonds.

Ionic bond

Formed when one atom gains electrons while the other atom loses electrons from its outermost level or orbit.


Charged atoms.

Mineral salts

sodium chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphate.

covalent bond

Atoms share electons to fill their outermost levels.

this kind of bond dissociates in water

ionic bond

four of the most important elements found in cells form covalent bonds

C, O, H, N

Electron donors

elements or molecules furnishing electrons during a reaction.

electron acceptors

Those that gain electrons during a chemical reaction.

electron carriers

special molecules will gain electrons only to lose them to another in a very short time.


a medium allowing reactions to occur

Molecular oxygen

formed when two oxygen atoms are covalently bonded together.


necessary for muscle contraction and nervous transmission, building stron bones.


necessary to produce the high-energy molecule atp


necessary for nervous transmission

Sodium and potassium

muscle cell contraction and nervous transmission.

Peptide bond

covalent bond formed between amino acids to form proteins


Genetic material of cells located in the nucleus of the cell.


Single chains of nucleotides.

Isotonic solution

concentration outside the red blood cell equals the concentration inside the red blood cell.

hypotonic solution

water molecules are in a higher concentration outside the red blood cell, water will move into the blood cell, causing it to swell and rupture.

hypertonic solution

more water inside the red blood cell than in the solution.


negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution


acts as a reservoir for hydrogen ions.


energy requiring process that builds larger molecules


energy releasing process that breaks down large molecules.

cellular respiration

energy changes that occur in cells.


total chemical changes that occur inde a cell.

Krebs cycle

step after glycolysis in which pyruvic acid gets broken down in to carbon dioxide gas and water.

Cancer cell



Move to other parts of the body.

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