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Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide

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Anatomy
The study of the structure or morphology of the body and how the body parts are organized.
Physiology
The study of the functions of body parts, what they do and how they do it.
Pathology
The study of the diseases of the body.
Basic reference systems of bodily organization
Directions, planes, cavities, and structural units.
Superior
Uppermost or above
Inferior (Caudal)
Lowermost or below.
Anterior (Ventral)
Toward the front.
Posterior (Dorsal)
Towards the back.
Cephalad (Cranial)
Toward the head.
Medial
Nearest the midline of the body.
Lateral
Toward the side or away from the midline of the body.
Proximal
Nearest the point of attachment or origin.
Distal
Away from the point of attachment.
Midsagittal Plane
Vertically divides the body through the midline into two equal portions or halves.
Sagittal Plane
Any plane parallel to the midsagittal or median plane vertically diving the body into unequal right and left portions.
Horizontal (Transverse) Plane
Any plane dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.
Frontal (Coronal) Plane
One that divides the anterior and posterior portions of the body at right angles to the sagittal plane.
Body has two major cavities.
Dorsal Cavity and the ventral cavity.
Viscera
The organs of any cavity.
Dorsal cavity
Contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate the body's functions. Cranial cavity and the Spinal cavity.
Cranial Cavity
Contains the brain.
Spinal cavity
Contains the spinal cord.
Ventral cavity
Contains organs that are involved in maintaining homeostasis. Thoracic cavity and Abdominopelvic cavity.
Thoracic cavity
Surrounded by the rib cage and contains the heart in a pericardial cavity, and the two lungs the pleural cavities.
Mediastinum
Found between the two pleural cavities and contains the heart, thymus gland, lymph and blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and nerves.
Diaphragm
The muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
Abdominopelvic cavity
Second subdivision of the ventral cavity that contains the kidneys, stomach, liver and gallbladder, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas, and the ovaries and uterus.
parietal
Refers to the walls of a cavity.
Visceral
Refers to the covering on an organ.
Cells
The smallest units of life.
Protoplasm
Aqueous colloidal solution of various proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and inorganic salts that are organized into structures referred to as organelles.
Tissues
Epithelial, connective, muscle, or nervous.
Epithelial tissue
Covers surfaces and protects both the outer suface like the skin and inner surfaces of organs like the intestine, forms glands, and lines cavities of the body.
Connective tissue
binds together and supports other tissues and organs.
Muscle tissue
Characterized by elongated cells that generate movement by shortening or contracting in a forcibile manner. There are three types of muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle tissue
Voluntary muscle pulls on bones and causes body movements.
Smooth muscle tissue
Involuntary muscle is found in the intestines where it pushes food along the digestive tract. Also found in arteries and veins.
Cardiac muscle tissue
found only in the heart.
Nervous muscle tissue
composed of nerve cells forming a coordinating system of fibers connecting the numberous sensory and motor structures of the body.
System
Group of organs.
Integumentary system
Made up of two layers epidermis and dermis. It includes the skin, hair, nails, sebaceious glands, and sweat glands.
Integumentary system function
Insulation of the body, protection of the body from environmental hazards, and regulation of body temperature and water.
Skieletal system
Bones, cartilage, and membranous structures associated with bones.
Skeletal system function
Protectes the soft and vital parts of the body and provides support for body tissues. Its bones act as levers for movement.
Skeletal system
Manufactures blood cells in red bone marrow and stores fat in yellow bone marrow.
Muscular system
consists of muscles, fasciae, tendon sheaths, and bursae.
Muscular system function
Skeletal muscles pull on bones to allow movement.
Nervous system
Consists of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, and the sensory and motor structures of the body.
Nervous system function
controlling, correlating and regulatting the other systems of the body.
Endocrine system
Consists of the endocrine glads (ductless glands), the master gland, or pituitary, controls the other glands.
Endocrine system function
Chemically regulate the body's functions.
Cardiovascular system
consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Cardiovascular system function
Pump, distribute blood which carries oxygen, nutrients and wastes to and from the cells.
Lymphatic system
lymph nodes, thymus gland, the spleen, and the lymph vessels.
Lymphatic system function
drain tissue spaces of excess interstitial fluids and absorb fats from the intestine and carry them to the blood. Protects the body from disease.
Respiratory system
Nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Respiratory system function
Bring oxygen to and eliminates carbon dioxide from the blood.
Digestive system
Alimentary canal(mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus) with assoc. glands(salivary, liver, and pancreas.)
Digestive system function
Convert food into simpler substances.
Urinary system
Two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra.
Urinary system function
Chemical regulation of the blood, the formation and elimination of urine, and the maintenance of homeostasis.
Reproductive system
Consists of the ovaries uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in females. Testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, and urethra in males.
Reproductive system function
Maintenance of sexual characteristics and the perpetuation of our species.
Homeostasis
The maintenance of the internal environment of the body.
Homeostasis i.e.
Blood sugar levels, body temperature, heart rate, and the fluid environment of the celss.
Organs
composed of cells integrated into tissues serving a common function.
System
a group of organs that perform a common function.
Claude Bernard
First scientist to discuss the significance of homeostasis.
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Chemical fuel that allows the body cells to do work and function.
Atom
The smallest particles of an element that maintain all the characteristics of that element.
Protons
Carries a positive charge.
neutrons
No charge
Electrons
Lighter particles that orbit the nucleus at some distance. Negative charge.
Element
Substance whose atoms all contain the same number of protons and neutrons which makes them electically neutral.
John Dalton
proposed the atomic theory
Carbon
element found in all living things.
Isotopes
different kinds of atoms of the same element
atomic number
number of protons or electrons.
Periodic table
arranges the elements by increasing atomic number.
Bonds
Atoms combine chemically with one another to form bonds.
Ionic bond
Formed when one atom gains electrons while the other atom loses electrons from its outermost level or orbit.
Ions
Charged atoms.
Mineral salts
sodium chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphate.
covalent bond
Atoms share electons to fill their outermost levels.
this kind of bond dissociates in water
ionic bond
four of the most important elements found in cells form covalent bonds
C, O, H, N
Electron donors
elements or molecules furnishing electrons during a reaction.
electron acceptors
Those that gain electrons during a chemical reaction.
electron carriers
special molecules will gain electrons only to lose them to another in a very short time.
solvent
a medium allowing reactions to occur
Molecular oxygen
formed when two oxygen atoms are covalently bonded together.
Calcium
necessary for muscle contraction and nervous transmission, building stron bones.
Phosphate
necessary to produce the high-energy molecule atp
Chloride
necessary for nervous transmission
Sodium and potassium
muscle cell contraction and nervous transmission.
Peptide bond
covalent bond formed between amino acids to form proteins
DNA
Genetic material of cells located in the nucleus of the cell.
RNA
Single chains of nucleotides.
Isotonic solution
concentration outside the red blood cell equals the concentration inside the red blood cell.
hypotonic solution
water molecules are in a higher concentration outside the red blood cell, water will move into the blood cell, causing it to swell and rupture.
hypertonic solution
more water inside the red blood cell than in the solution.
pH
negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
buffer
acts as a reservoir for hydrogen ions.
anabolism
energy requiring process that builds larger molecules
catobolism
energy releasing process that breaks down large molecules.
cellular respiration
energy changes that occur in cells.
metabolism
total chemical changes that occur inde a cell.
Krebs cycle
step after glycolysis in which pyruvic acid gets broken down in to carbon dioxide gas and water.
Cancer cell
carcinogen
metastisis
Move to other parts of the body.