City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
Earlier name for the city Yathrib. Muhammad moved here from Mecca in the migration known as the Hijrah.
beliefs that all Muslims needed to carry out: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage
1st caliph. Father-in-law of Muhammad. A merchant. Spread Islam to all of Arabia. Restored peace after death of Muhammad; created code of cunduct in war; compiled Quarn verses
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites, Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad,
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
Harun al- Rashid
(786-809) He was the caliph of the Abbasid dynasty during its high point. He provided liberal support for artists and writers, bestowed lavish and luxurious gifts on his favorites, and distributed money to the poor and the common classes by tossing coins into the streets of Baghdad.
the rulership of Islam; caliph, the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state
Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under title of sultan; retained Abbasids as figureheads
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
Determined to capture portions of Islamic world that made up Holy land of biblical times
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
the body of mullahs (Muslim scholars trained in Islam and Islamic law) who are the interpreters of Islam's sciences and doctrines and laws and the chief guarantors of continuity in the spiritual and intellectual history of the Islamic community
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph
Mongolian ruler of Samarkand who led his nomadic hordes to conquer an area from Turkey to Mongolia (1336-1405)
Muhammad ibn Quasim
Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of Umayyad Empire.
Muhammad of Ghazni
led a series of expeditions that began 2 centuries of Muslim raiding and conquest in northern India
cultural groups in which authority is determined by kinship instead of being exercised by a central government.
the name of the Muslims from North Africa. They conquered and settled Spain. Their armies advanced north to Paris before being halted at the Battle of Tours in 732. Then they settled in Spain, where they helped form an extraordinary Muslim state in al-Andalus
a member of a Muslim dynasty of Berber warriors that flourished from 1049 to 1145 and that established political dominance over northwestern Africa and Spain
grassland with scattered trees; found in tropical regions of Africa, Australia, and South America
an extensive grassland belt at south edge of Sahara; became point of exchange between forests to south & north Africa
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E.
The people who broke away from Ghana control and founded Mali in the 13th century User-contributed
Malinke merchants that formed partnerships or groups to carry out trade. They spread beyond Mali and throughout western Africa
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire
Mali's first great leader ; finishes of Ghana, takes over Kumbi and Mualeta, unifies empire, establishes a bureaucracy, encourages salt and gold trade
Muslim traveler who described African societies and cultures. A sort of Muslim "Marco Polo"
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west Africa. Popularized Islam by making pilgrimmage to Mecca
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
created Sunni Dynasty; rule lasted 30 years; many military campaigns/victories; conquered Timbuktu and Djenne, which gave Songhai control of trade; focus on trading empire
Muhammad the Great
Extended the boundaries of the Songhay Empire; Islamic ruler of the mid-16th century
An agricultural and trading people of central Sudan in West Africa. Aside from their brief incorporation into the Songhai Empire, the Hausa city-states remained autonomous
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome. Later became center of Ottoman Empire, now known as Istanbul
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians, codified Roman Law in 529; his general Belisarius regained North Africa and Spain (483-565)
Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula; constant source of pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Emperor Basil II in 1014
Cyril and Methodius
Christian missionaries who tried to teach the Bible to Slavs in central and eastern Europe. Created Cyrillic alphabet.
A monarchy established in present day Russia in the 6th and 7th centuries. It was ruled through loosely organized alliances with regional aristocrats from. The Scandinavians coined the term "Russia". It was greatly influenced by Byzantine
Vladimir's son became a Grand Prince in A.D. 1019. Under his rule, Kievan culture reached its peak. First library established and codified laws.
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state in 1236; left Russian Orthodoxy and aristocracy intact
System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. Could not be sold or traded.
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permited deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovation of the medevial agricultural system
religious community of monks. Self sufficient. Improved agriculture, provided education and promoted literacy in Medival times.
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival
loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord
members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England. Defeated Harold the 2nd at the Battle of Hastings in 1066
This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, limited the power a king could excersise over nobility and church
Bodies representing privileges groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vazzals; found in England, Spain, germany, and France
a series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
Practice of state appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice of lay investiture, leading to war with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV
Italian monk that taught at Univeristy of Paris. Put faith before reasoning. Wrote Summas.
method used by Christian scholars to use reason to support Christian beliefs, especially in times of conflict between faith and reason.
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad