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Psyc 204 Exam #1
Terms in this set (94)
What is the definition of psychology?
Scientific study of behavior
What are the 2 methods of acquiring knowledge?
2. Tenacity (non-scientific)
3. Common Sense (non-sci)
4. Intuition (non-sci)
5. Mysticism (non-sci)
6. Authority (non-sci)
A method of acquiring knowledge based on superstition or habit (e.g., "old dogs can't learn new tricks" but elderly can do and learn; "spare the rod, spoil the child")
"Practical intelligence" shared by a large group of persons (e.g., fire, initial sense response is to douse with water- however, the effectiveness of this response is a function of the source of combustion; several instances when this would be a very bad response)
Spontaneous perception or judgement not based on rational or logical steps (e.g., psychics)
Belief in insight gained by means of a private experience such as an altered state of consciousness (e.g., hallucinogens)
Acceptance of information because it is acquired from a highly respected, credible, or popular sources (e.g., physician recommendation of aspirin; rottentomatoes.com movie recomendations)
Working assumptions of Science
4. Causality or determinism
The philosophy that objects perceived have an existence outside the mind
The view that reasoning and login, and NOT authority, intuition, "gut feelings", or faith, are the basis for solving problems.
A belief that phenomena exist in recurring patterns that conform with universal laws. The world follows the same laws at all times and in all places.
Causality or determinism
The doctrine that all events happen because of preceding causes.
The belief that it is possible to learn solutions to questions posed, and that the only limitations are time and resources.
What are the 3 processes of science?
2. Explanation (development of theories)
3. Prediction (formulated from theories)
Characteristics of the Scientific Approach
2. Operational Definition
10. Concerned with theory
- The ability to remove or account for alternative explanations (or variables) of observed relationships
- Single most important element of the scientific process
Defining variables or constructs in such a way that they are measurable; this also serves to eliminate confusion in communication.
"In God we trust; all others must bring data"
Science is based on an objective observation --> that is, observation that is independent of opinion or basis.
The reproduction of the results of a study
Concerned with theory
Hypotheses and predictions and the tests of such.
Knowing about knowing
What is power and why do we care?
Power is the ability to detect an effect if there is one present. We care because we can manipulate our level of power by the sample size.
A key criterion in evaluating any test, measure, or piece of research is _________.
What is the definition of validity?
The appropriateness of inferences drawn from data
What are the two concepts in which validity is used?
1. Research validity (internal, external, statistical conclusion, construct)
2. Test and measurement validity (criterion-related, content related, construct-related)
What is research validity?
A conclusion based on a research study is valid when it corresponds to the actual or true state of the world.
- is the extent to which we can infer that a relationship between two variables is causal or that the absence of a relationship implies absence of cause.
- Do the relationships obtained follow from the research designs?
In terms of experimental research designs, a study has __________ validity if a cause-effect relationship actually exists between the independent and dependent variables.
Any variable other than the IV that influences the DV
When an extraneous variable systematically varies with variations or levels of the IV
Internal validity is primarily determined by the quality of the _____________, which is in turn determined by the degree or amount of ___________.
research design ; experimental control
Threats to internal validity
4. Attrition or Mortality
6. Regression Effects
[these threats are corrected for by randomization]
(events outside the lab)
The observed effects between the IV and DV might be due to an event which takes place between the pretest and posttest when this even is not the treatment of research interest.
(e.g., effects of success/failure [IV] on feelings of depression [DV] with success condition run on a sunny day and failure on a gloomy, dar, cold, rainy day [weather = extraneous variable])
A source of error in a study related to the amount of time between measurements; concerned with naturally occurring changes in research participants.
(e.g., developmental or gerontological psychology research)
Testing Effects Threat
Effects due to the number of times particular responses are measured - familiarity with the measuring instrument.
(e.g., increased scores on 2nd exam)
Attrition or Mortality Threat
The dropping out of some participants before a study is completed, causing a threat to validity.
(e.g., effect of learning strategies [IV] on end of semester grades [DV]; effect of attrition as a result of bad grades would be an extraneous variable)
Many studies compare two or more groups on some dependent variable after the introduction of an IV. Other studies like surveys just assess attitudes or opinions on an issue. In either case, sampling or selection into the study is critical. Samples must be comparable - in multi group designs - or must represent the population.
(e.g., survey of attitudes towards endangered species - one would probably obtain very different results as a function of sampling from individuals in the logging industry vs. members of the Society for the Protection of Baby Seals)
Regression Effects Threat
Tendency of participants with extreme scores on first measure to score closer to the mean on a second testing; a statistical threat.
(e.g., score on the 2nd test regress- more either higher or lower - to the true score)
- Is the inference that presumed causal relationships can be generalized to and across alternate measures of cause and effect, and across different types, persons, settings, and times. That is, how generalizable are findings?
- The concern is whether the results of the research study can be generalized to another situation- specifically, participants, settings, and times.
Threats to External Validity
1. Population Validity
2. Ecological Validity
3. Temporal Validity
[External validity may be increased by random sampling for representativeness]
Population Validity Threat
Other participants (interaction of selection and treatment)
Ecological Validity Threat
Other settings (interaction of setting and treatment)
Temporal Validity Threat
Other times (interaction of history and treatment)
Statistical Conclusion Validity
Appropriateness of inferences (or conclusions) made from data as a result (or function) of conclusions drawn from statistical analysis. That is, are the IV and DV statistically related?
Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity
1. Low statistical power
2. Violated assumptions of statistical tests
3. Reliability of measures' scores
[These threats can be addressed by having adequate power, meeting the assumptions of tests, and using measures with acceptable levels of score reliability]
- Has to do with labels that can be placed on what is being observed and the extent to which said labels are theoretically relevant.
- Is a question of whether the research results support the theory underlying the research. That is, is there another theory that could adequately explain the same results?
(e.g., in polygraph research, is "anxiety" a better label than "lying" for what is being studied?)
- If the labels being used are irrelevant to the theory being researched, then the study can be said to lack construct validity.
Threats to construct validity
1. Loose connection between theory and study
2. Changes in research participants' behaviors that result from their tendency to alter their behavior because they are being studied.
[These effects can be controlled or minimized by using double-blind, single-blind, and deception]
Researcher and participants don't know
Researcher knows and participants don't know
The participants don't know anything about the study
* Need to realize that the four facets of dimensions of research validity are ___________ and NOT independent of one another.
(e.g., statistical conclusion validity is necessary for demonstrating other types of validity.
- internal validity must be achieved for construct validity to be obtained
- External validity depends in part on the demonstration of at least statistical conclusion validity and internal validity)
What is a test?
Can or is used to refer to both a measurement tool or device.
(e.g., the GRE is a test/measure of scholastic aptitude or achievement) OR a statistical significance test (e.g., the t-test as a statistical test for differences between means)
What is a study?
A test (i.e., measurement tool) is NOT a study. A study is an investigation or an assessment of the relationship between variables. A study is not a "test of the variables."
Qualities of a good test:
- reliability of its scores
Qualities of a good study:
A good study must display relatively high levels of research validity (i.e., internal, external, statistical conclusion, and construct)
What are the 3 types of variables?
1. Independent and Dependent
2. Continuous and Discrete
3. Quantitative and Categorical (Qualitative)
The condition manipulated or selected by the researcher to determine its effect on behavior.
- The "antecedent" variable and has AT LEAST 2 levels that defines the variation
A measure of the behavior of the participant that reflects the effects of the IV
- The "consequence"
A variable that falls along a continuum and is not limited to a certain number of values
- (e.g., distance or time)
- Age measured in years.
Discrete (categorical) Variable
One that falls into separate categories with no intermediate values possible
- (e.g., male/female, alive/dead, flying/walking)
- Age measured young/old
Natural discrete variable
Sex --> male/female
Artificially discrete variable
A continuous variable that converts into discrete levels
(e.g., age --> young/old)
Assumes that both variables are continuous
- One that varies in amount
- You can put a number to it
(e.g., reaction time or speed of response, temperature, GPA)
Categorical Variable (Qualitative)
- One that varies in kind
- any category
(e.g., college major or sex)
What is the definition of measurement?
The assignment of numbers to events or objects according to rules that permit important properties of the events or objects to be represented by properties of the number system.
To scientifically study anything, we must first operationally define the _______________, then use measurement rules to _________ it. This permits us to study the construct. The key is that properties of the events are represented by properties of the number system.
construct of interest ; quantify
What are the 5 levels of measurement?
2. Nominal Scale
3. Ordinal Scale
4. Interval Scale
5. Ratio Scale
When numbers are used as a way of keeping track of things without any suggestion that the numbers can be subjected to mathematical analyses
(e.g., participant ID, UIN, social security numbers)
Grouping objects or people without any specified quantitative relationships among the categories.
(e.g., coding men as 1; and women as 2)
People ore objects are ordered from "most" to "least" with respect to an attribute.
(e.g., College football pools, top 5 contestants in a beauty pageant)
Most common level of measurement in psychology
- Measures how much of a variable or attribute is present
- Rank order of persons or objects is known with respect to an attribute.
(e.g., how well you like a course, where 1= do not like at all, and 5= like very much)
Has properties of preceding 4 levels of measurement in addition to a true zero-point.
- Distance from a true zero-point (or rational zero) is known for at least one of the objects or persons.
(e.g., speed- no motion)
Presence of/susceptibility to measurement error. To the extent that the construct is stable, then would expect consistency over time, place, occasion, etc.
[Based on correlations]
Extent to which a method measures what it is supposed to measure.
[Based on correlations]
Correlation coefficients measure the degree of ___________ associated between two _________.
relationship ; variables
Correlation coefficients can assume values of -1.00 to +1.00. The closer this value is to either of these limits the _________ the relationship between the two variables.
What are the methods for assessing the reliability of a test's scores?
3. Split-half, odd-even (or random split)
4. Coefficient alpha (Cronbach's alpha)
5. Scorer reliability or inter-rater reliability
Involves the repeated administration of the same test to the same people
A measure to the extent to which 2 separate forms of the same test are equivalent
Split half, odd-even (random split) reliability
The primary issue here is one of obtaining comparable halves
Coefficient alpha (cronbach's alpha)
This is a measure of inter-item consistency (i.e., the consistency of responses to all items on the test)
Scorer reliability or inter-rater reliability
The extent to which 2 or ore rates are consistent, or agree.
The _______ of a test's scores concerns WHAT it measures and HOW WELL it does so.
Effectiveness of a test in predicting an individuals behavior in specific situations.
- That is, the test or measure is intended as an indicator or predictor of some other behavior (that typically will not be observed until some future date).
- Performance on a test, predictor, or measure is correlated with a criterion.
What are the 3 specific criterion-related validation designs?
For some tests and measures, validity depends primarily on adequacy with which a specified content common is sampled.
- Involved degree to which a predictor covers a representative sample of the behavior being assessed.
The construct related validity of a test or measure is the extent to which the test may be said to measure a theoretical construct or trait.
What are the 2 sources of construct-related validity evidence?
1. Convergent validity: different measures of the same construct should be correlated or related to each other. (SAT & ACT)
2. Discriminant validity: different measures of different constructs should NOT be correlated or related to each other (SAT and economic status)
Has to do with the extent to which a test or measure LOOKS like it measures what it's supposed to. Relevant because in case influence test takers' reactions and attitudes towards the test (e.g., test-taking motivation) and ultimately, their test performance.
A tests scores can be ________ but not ________.
A tests scores CANNOT be ___________ but not ________.
- A test that does not correlate with itself cannot be expected to correlate with anything else.
Reliability is a necessary but not ________ condition for validity
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