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Marine Biology Chapter 13 - Marine Reptiles and Birds
Thomas F. Greene's Second Edition Marine Science Textbook Marine Biology and Oceanography
Terms in this set (52)
What adaptations do sea snakes have for life in the ocean?
The ﬂatter body (side-to-side) and paddle-like tail help the sea snake swim more efﬁciently. The presence of salt glands in the mouth enables the sea snake to get rid of excess salts and thereby maintain a normal water balance in the body. Another adaptation in the sea snake is the special ﬂap of tissue that covers the nostrils. During dives, this ﬂap of tissue prevents water from entering the lungs. The lungs of a sea snake can inﬂate to three quarters of its body length. This enhanced lung capacity lets the sea snake stay underwater for as long as two hours on a single breath.
How does the marine iguana regulate its body temperature?
When their bodies get too cold from the water, the iguanas return to the land, where they warm themselves in the sun by lying across the heated lava boulders.
What kinds of food do the different sea turtle species eat?
Although turtles have no teeth, they do have strong jaws (and, in some cases, birdlike beaks) that they use either for breaking open the shells of crabs, clams, and other shelled animals, or for eating underwater vegetation. Mollusks, crustaceans, fish, and jellyfish make up the diet of the loggerhead turtle. The hawksbill turtle eats mollusks and crustaceans in addition to jellyfish and algae. The green sea turtle prefers to graze on the turtle grass and eel grass that grow in shallow waters, whereas the Paciﬁc ridley eats invertebrates that live in eel grass. The leatherback ventures far offshore to feed on jellyﬁsh. Sea turtles that eat jellyﬁsh sometimes die when they accidentally ingest floating garbage such as plastic bags, which resemble their prey.
Describe three different feeding methods of marine birds.
Some seabirds forage in the sand and mud along the shoreline. Others make short trips to the sea, diving several times a day for their catch of ﬁsh and invertebrates. The more oceanic species spend extended periods out at sea, gliding above the waves and diving into the sea for food.
What three features of seabirds are specifically adaptive for life at sea?
Seabird species that spend much of their time in and on the water have webbed feet for paddling and swimming. Like marine reptiles, marine birds have to get rid of excess salt and conserve fresh water. So, like the reptiles, seabirds have salt glands; they are special nasal glands that secrete a salty solution from the nostrils. In addition, seabirds conserve water by excreting a concentrated uric acid.
How is the penguin adapted to live in the cold Antarctic?
Penguins can survive the cold air and waters of the Antarctic because they have a thick layer of fat under their skin and densely packed soft down feathers for insulation. These features help to prevent loss of body heat in air temperatures that are often well below zero. Like all other birds, penguins are endothermic (warm-blooded). They can generate their own body heat, an ability that enables them to live in regions with cold temperatures.
Contains large yolk; enclosed in a case to prevent water loss; first seen in reptiles
Seabird that catches fish with its lower jaw as it flies over ocean
Large coastal bird that dives to catch fish in its big throat pouch
Small shorebird that nests on sand and dives to catch small fish
Common shorebird that dives to catch fish
Large reptiles that have a four-chambered heart; alligators and crocodiles
Term for an animal that can generate its own body heat; e.g. birds and mammals; also warm-blooded
Baby turtles or birds, just after they break through their shells
Galapagos lizard that swims and feeds (on algae) in the ocean
Catches fish with its talons as it flies over coastal water; also called fish hawk
Large coastal bird that has long, knife-like beak to catch mollusks
In aquatic birds, they repel water to protect underlying down feathers
In birds, method of grooming; the beak is used to spread oil through feathers
In marine reptiles and birds, excrete a salty solution to rid excess body salts
Small shorebird that has narrow bill for catching small invertebrates in sand
Term for all birds that depend on the ocean for their survival
Ducks that dive into ocean to eat mollusks, crustaceans, and fish
Ocean bird that feeds on crabs, dead marine animals, and garbage
Venomous, tropical ocean-dwelling reptile with rudder-like tail
Turtles that live and feed in the sea, but come ashore to lay their eggs
Tall salt-marsh bird that has a pointed bill for grabbing small fish
In hawks and eagles; e.g., osprey, strong curved claws for grabbing prey
Largest, most oceanic of diving seabirds; glides on air currents over the ocean for years at a time
Birds can regulate their body temperature; they are __________.
The __________ has venom, a paddle-like tail, and salt glands.
A lizard that swims and feeds in the ocean is the __________.
Seabirds spread an oil through their feathers when they __________.
The most widely distributed marine reptile is the __________.
Marine turtles bury their fertilized eggs in the sand, leaving them to hatch on their own. Discuss the risks and benefits.
While buried in the sand, the eggs are kept warm and moist and protected from such predators as raccoons, gulls, and rats. The embryos develop inside the leathery eggs for about two months. After their development is completed, the baby turtles, called hatchlings, break through their shells and dig their way to the surface. Hatchlings usually emerge before dawn and are unprotected; they must quickly wiggle down to the sea. At this stage, they are vulnerable to predation by gulls and large ﬁsh.
How do sea snakes resemble their relatives on land? How do they differ, as a result of living in the ocean?
Sea snakes do, in fact, resemble their relatives on land, such as the coral snake. However, their special adaptations enable them to survive in the ocean. The ﬂatter body (side-to-side) and paddle-like tail help the sea snake swim more efﬁciently. The presence of salt glands in the mouth enables the sea snake to get rid of excess salts and thereby maintain a normal water balance in the body. Another adaptation in the sea snake is the special ﬂap of tissue that covers the nostrils. During dives, this ﬂap of tissue prevents water from entering the lungs. The lungs of a sea snake can inﬂate to three quarters of its body length. This enhanced lung capacity lets the sea snake stay underwater for as long as two hours on a single breath. As mentioned before, some sea snakes bear their young live in the sea; others come ashore to lay their eggs.
Briefly describe the feeding methods of the pelican, osprey, sandpiper, and egret. How is each method suited for getting specific resources in and near the sea?
Pelican - Pelicans literally "make a splash" when they dive from the sky into the water; it uses its large throat pouch like a net to scoop up ﬁsh. Water is squeezed out of the pouch and the ﬁsh are then swallowed headﬁrst to prevent their dorsal spines from getting stuck in the bird's throat.
Osprey - The osprey swoops down from its nest on top of a tree to grab ﬁsh right out of the water. Keen vision enables the ﬁsh hawk to spot its prey from high up. Like other hawks and eagles, the osprey has strong curved claws, called talons, which it uses to grab and hold onto a ﬁsh
Sandpiper - The small sandpiper has a narrow pointed bill for poking in the sand for small invertebrates, such as worms and insects
The beaches with the highest number of nesting sites are located between...?
Miami and West Palm Beach
Which is an accurate statement regarding the data in the graph?
More than 700 nesting sites were found on the coast north of West Palm Beach
A tentative conclusion that can be drawn from the data is that...?
Most suitable nesting sites are found on beaches near, but not in, the big cities
The pattern of reproduction shown in this reptile is...?
Internal fertilization and external development
The marine reptile that guards its eggs in the nest until they hatch is the...?
Marine reptiles may have any of the following features except...?
Sea turtles leave the water and come up on land to...?
Marine turtles have all of the following adaptations except...?
The female sea turtle lays eggs that have a...?
An adaptive feature that this shore bird has for food-getting is...?
A pointed bill for grabbing small fish
Penguins have all of the following adaptations except...?
Contour feathers for flight
The sandpiper's beak, used to find tiny creatures in the sand, is...?
Narrow and pointed
The bird that has webbed feet for moving in the water is the...?
Marine reptiles are found primarily in...?
The osprey uses its sharp talons to...?
Grab and hold onto fish
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