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20 terms

E-Phys

STUDY
PLAY
BIOENERGETICS
converting food into energy
ENERGY SOURCES
carbs, fats, proteins
Carb
Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
disaccharides
Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose
polysaccharides
starch, glycogen, cellulose
glycognenisis
formation of glycogen from glucose
glycogenolysis
breaking down of glycogen into glucose
fatty acids
-even number of 4 to 24 carbon atoms bound in chain
-saturated, monosaturated, polysaturated
Triglyceride
-form on fatty acids stored in fat cells

-glycrol molecule plus 3 fatty acids
PROTEINS
-Found in both animals and plants

-composed of amino acids

-20 amino acids
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS (9)
-must be ingested in food; canot be synthesized
NONESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS (11)
-CAN BE SYNTHESIZED BY THE BODY
ENZYMES
-protein molecules that facilitate a chemical reaction

-lower energy necessary for reaction to take place

-facilitate and increase speed of reaction
catabolic reaction
breaking down of substrate into molecules
anabolic reaction
forming of product from molecules
factors affecting speed of facilitation:
temperature, acidity, need for coenzymes
METABOLISM
sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body
Aerobic metabolism
-oxygen required
-generates energy, CO2, and water
- used at rest, during long-duration, lower intensity activity
-examples.....
- cycling and distance running
- most commonly involves carbohydrate and fat
-can involve protein
Anaerobic metabolism
-no oxygen required
-generates energy, CO2, and lactid acid
-lactic acid decreases production of useful energy, diminishing intensity or speed of activity
- energy is made available quickly to muscle
-major energy source during high-intensity, short duration activity
-only uses carbohydrate