46 terms

Chapter 2 Cell process and energy

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photosynthesis
the process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food
autotroph
an organism that makes its own food
heterotroph
an organism that cannot make its own food
Nearly all living things obtain energy either ________ or __________ from the energy of sunlight that is captured during photosynthesis
directly, indirectly
during photosynthesis, plants and some other organisms absorb energy from the sun and use the energy to convert ______ _______ and _____ into sugars and oxygen
carbon dioxide, water
chlorophyll
the main pigment for photosynthesis in chloroplast
stage 1: ___________ in plants cell captures energy from ________
chlorophyll, sunlight
stage 2: the captured light ______, ________, and _______ are used to produce ______
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, energy
photosynthesis equation: _____ ______ + ______ _______ + _____ ------> _______ + ______
light energy, carbon dioxide, water, glucose, oxygen
cellular respiration equation: _______ + ______ ------> ______ _______ + _____ + ______
glucose, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, energy
during photosynthesis,
energy is absorbed from sunlight
cellular respiration
the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose
during cellular respiration,
cells break down glucose and other molecules from food in the presence of oxygen, releasing energy
the first stage happens in the _________ of a cell. There,
cytoplasm, molecules of glucose are broken down into smaller molecules, oxygen is not involved and only a small amount of energy releases
the second stage happens in the ____________. There,
mitochondria, small molecules are broken down even more, this change requires oxygen and releases a great deal of energy that the cell can use for all its activities.
during cellular respiration, cells
obtain energy from glucose
fermentation
an energy releasing process that does not require oxygen
during fermentation,
cells release energy from food without using oxygen
Alcoholic fermentation
occurs in yeast and other single-celled organisms
lactic acid fermentation
painful sensation in your muscles
fermentation is a way for cells to
get enough energy and release energy from food without using oxygen
cellular division
allows organisms to grow larger, produces new healthy bones that replace the damaged cells
cell division allows organisms to
grow, repair and reproduce
cell cycle
the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
the cell cycle consists of the 3 main stages:
interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
interphase
the cell grows, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into two cells
enzymes
substances that speed up chemical reactions in living things
replication
the cell makes an exact copy of the DNA in its nucleus
chromosomes
a threadlike structure within a cell's nucleus that contains DNA that is passed from one generation to the next
mitosis
the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one set of DNA is distributed into each daughter cell
scientist divide mitosis into four parts or phrases:
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
during prophase,
the chromosomes condense into shapes that can be seen under a microscope
chromatids
two rod-like parts
centromere
holds the chromatids together
during mitosis,
each chromatid will move into each daughter cell
cytokinesis
the cytoplasm divides
during cytokinesis in animal cells
the cell membrane squeezes together around the middle of the cell
during cytokinesis in plant cells
a structure called a cell plate forms across the middle of the cell
which of the following organisms are autotrophs
a. fungi b. rabbits c. humans d. oak trees
d. oak trees
plants are green because of ___________, the main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts
chlorophyll
in which organelle does cellular respiration take place
mitochondria
define in 1 or two sentences what happens during each of the two stages of cellular respiration
cytoplasm: molecules of glucose are broken down into smaller molecules Mitochondria: the small molecules are broken down even more.
how is breathing and cellular respiration the same
you're moving air in and out of your lungs
during which phase of the cell does the DNA replication occur
interphase
during _______, a cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei
mitosis
why is replication a necessary function of living things
without replication a part of the process is missing
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