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Org Comm Final

Terms in this set (24)

Prescriptive and Descriptive approaches are lenses through which to view an organization's culture.
Prescriptive: A view of organizational culture that proposes a single cultural formula for achieving organizational success. What it "should" look like ideally. An organization can create whatever kind of culture it wants, because it views culture as controllable.
Something an organization has. Tangible, therefore it can be controlled.
Uses Deal and Kennedy's "strong cultures" (values, heroes, rites and rituals, and cultural networks) and Peters and Waterman's "Excellent Cultures" (aspects of organizational cultures that were prevalent in high-performing companies: bias for action, close relation to the customer, autonomy and entrepreneurship, productivity through people, hands-on, value-driven, stick to the knitting, simple form/lean staff, simultaneous lose-tight properties.)
Can hinder creativity because the culture typically is dictated by management in order to follow the formula.
Oversimplification. The objectification of culture (a "thing" it "has") deemphasizes the complex process through which an organization is created and sustained.
Example: AOC has a clear vision for how to relate to marketing clients and participants. Wants to portray organization, ethical standards. But this culture allows little room for employees to bring creativity to the work environment, and oversimplifies the process of the company so as not to leave room for growth and development.
Descriptive: Rather than seeing the culture as a thing that must be managed, descriptive approach views culture as an emerging, and fragmented values, practices, narratives, and artifacts that make the organization what it is.
Putnam introduced this view as a way individuals make sense of the world through communicative behaviors.
Difference from prescriptive: Descriptive recognizes that culture is: complicated, (Schein's onion model demonstrates there are complicated "layers" in an organizational culture) emergent, (interactional, contextual, episodic, and improvisational) ambiguous, (not often a clear picture of an organization's culture) and not unified (There can be subcultures within an organizational culture because there is no clear / unified picture of what the culture "should be". Subcultures can coexist in harmony, conflict, or indifference.)
Descriptive believes that because it is not formulaic, culture is unpredictable, organically evolves, and is not overt.
Example: Apple encourages employees' values to influence decisions.
Main difference: Prescriptive has culture, while Descriptive is culture.
Shared: Values - each perspective can make positive contributions to an organization's performance and the work life of organizational members.
The process of organization assimilation can be considered through the lens of cultural and human resources approaches.
Human resources approach considers the process of assimilation as a way to maximize the contributions employees can make to the organization. Research might consider the extent to which selection processes will attract recruits who can contribute to organizational goals.
Cultural approach considers socialization as a process through which newcomers come to understand the values and norms of the new organizational culture. Research might consider sense-making strategies of new employees. How the newcomer can make sense of the new culture.
The process of socialization occurs in three stages - anticipatory, encounter, and metamorphosis. Each phase is typically marked by a "turning point" in which individuals become more or less connected with the organization.
In the anticipatory stage socialization occurs before the individual begins working with the organization. This includes researching occupations and organizations to learn more about them. From a human resources standpoint, anticipatory stage can be seen as the individual recognizing what skills they can bring to an organization. Thus success depends on the degree to which the individual has correctly anticipated the expectations and desires of those in the organization who will do the hiring. The cultural approach could view this stage as the individual anticipating how they will make sense of and embrace the organization's cultures and values.
The encounter stage is the sense making stage that occurs when a new employee enters the organization. This is the "point of entry" when a new employee first encounters life on the job. The newcomer must let go of old roles and values and adapt to expectations of the new organization. The encounter phase involves extensive information-seeking on the part of the newcomer, which can involve a variety of formal (orientations) and informal (mentoring) communication. The newcomer can expect to experience change, contrast, and surprise in this phase. The human resources view believes new employees must undergo socialization that will detach them from their previous assumptions and replace these with the organization's pivotal standards. Cultural approach believes the newcomer must work to make sense of the new organizational culture, and relies on predispositions, past experiences, and the interpretations of others. For some, the encounter phase can be relatively effortless. However for many it can be a stressful experience for newcomers.
The final stage is the metamorphosis stage. This is the state that is reached at the conclusion of the socialization process. The new employee is now accepted as an organizational insider. The newcomer is now seen as an accepted, participating member of the organization. Human resources believes the individual will have internalized the norms of the organization and their coworkers, and they understand and accept these norms. New members will feel accepted by their peers as trusted and valued individuals. They will have gained an understanding of the organizational system- not only their own tasks but the rules and procedures of the organization as a whole. The Cultural approach believes the individual has succeeded in their sense making process and gained a deeper understanding of the expected organizational behaviors.
Differences: The cultural approach differs from the human resources approach to socialization in that cultural focuses on the proactive information-seeking tactics the newcomer can use to help them adapt to their new roles and norms in the organization. Human resources approach, on the other hand, focuses on understanding the ways in which socialization programs can be developed to maximize the ability of employees to contribute to the organization.
Despite the differences in the two approaches, both agree that communication plays a major role in the socialization process. Adaptation is not immediate or automatic, so the newcomer must find ways to navigate the ups and downs of the socialization process.
Examples: Harry human resources is concerned with how he will come across to the organization as he presents the skills he has to offer. Before Harry's interview with the company he did a lot of research about what the culture expected from its employees. As Harry progressed in the socialization process, he began to feel accepted by his peers and learned to anticipate organizational procedures.
Kelly culture just began a new job and is in the midst of making sense of the organization's expectations. She has tried several information-seeking tactics in order to reduce the uncertainty of her new role. She first tries to observe how her coworkers handle certain situations. Sometimes she tests limits to solicit information, but if she is really confused she just asks overt questions to get a direct answer from her supervisor.
Participation decision making (PDM) is the core of the human resources approach. It acknowledges that employees can offer unique insight in the decision-making process.
Involving employees in the decision-making process not only empowers them to contribute to the success of an organization, but also saves the company time and money, in increased productivity and reduced outsourcing. It addresses self-esteem and actualization needs. If you involve employees in a decision they are more likely to support that decision, even if they don't agree with it. Therefore PDM is linked to higher job satisfaction and better employee performance.
Method 1 is the affective method. Based on work of human relations theorists. Proposes that PDM is an organizational practice that should satisfy employees' high-order needs. (self-esteem / self-actualization). "Involvement for the sake of involvement." Ego needs will be satisfied because they are participating and being consulted. Supporters of this model would argue that satisfied workers are more motivated and hence more productive. EX: Frank the assembly-line supervisor must make a decision about how to improve production rates. Frank decides to include his subordinates in the decision-making process, because then they will feel needed and important and therefore improve motivation and productivity. Frank believes happy workers are effective workers.
Method 2 is the cognitive model. Based on human resources approach. Proposes that PDM improves upward and downward communication. Improvement of upward communication rests of the individual close to the work knows the most about how to accomplish the tasks. Downward communication improvement rests on the idea that individuals who participate in decisions will be better able to implement the decisions in the future. When decisions are made with a better pool of information and are better implemented, productivity should improve. Increased employee satisfaction is seen as a byproduct of their participation in important organizational decisions.
EX: Rosie is an assembly line supervisor involves subordinates in decision-making process to improve productivity, but for different reasons than Frank. Rosie realizes her subordinates who spend more time on the line likely know more about productivity than anyone else, which means they will offer rich input. Rosie will have a better overview of the situation with more perspectives represented. Rosie believes productivity will lead to satisfaction - humans like accomplish goals.
Strongest empirical evidence is for the affective model. Evidence proves that working in a participative climate can meet workers' needs and increase satisfaction.
Conflict is the interaction of interdependent people who perceive opposition of goals, aims, and values, and who see the other party as potentially interfering with the realization of these goals.
Conflict can emerge in an organization through several levels. Interpersonal level of conflict is when individuals in an organization perceive goal incompatibility. Intergroup conflict considers groups or departments of individuals as the parties in the conflict. Such as employees versus supervisors. Interorganizational conflict involves disputes between two or more organizations. This can involve marketplace competition, such as iPhone vs. Android.
Phases of organizational conflict: Latent, Perceived, Felt, Manifest, and Conflict aftermath. Latent is when conflict might exist, but has not yet been perceived or realized. Perceived is when one or more parties believes incompatibility or interdependence exist. Felt is when the individuals personalize the perceived conflict issue and plan conflict management strategies. Manifest is when conflict is enacted through communication. Conflict is openly discussed. Conflict aftermath is the consequence of the conflict. This can be positive or negative and have emotional and physical outcomes.
Sources of conflict in an organization - change in an organization can create conflict. Such as a shift in leadership or if a company is bought by another company. Limited resources is a second source of conflict in an organization. Cutting costs in an organization can make employees feel as though they have to compete for resources, which can create friction in the workplace.
Conflict styles - Avoidance is low concern for self and low concern for others. This style is rarely effective because conflict continues to lie below the surface until they eventually boil to the surface. Could be effective when a fight just isn't worth it and won't have any long-term effects. Competition is a high concern for self and low concern for others. This strategy might get what is best for you, but does not consider the needs of others. Could be effective when something is not ethical and you "compete" to get your way. Collaboration benefits both you and others, it is a win/win because it finds a way to benefit both parties. If one idea is better than the other it might be worth it to accommodate rather than collaborate. (If someone else has more experience in an area than you.)
Genuine emotions are those in which an individual must cope with "real" feelings as part of their job. For instance, Nancy nurse may use compassionate communication in order to notice the needs of a patient's situation, connect with patients by taking on their perspective, and respond with verbal and nonverbal behaviors that will make a difference for patients.
On the other hand, "fake" emotions require employees to engage in emotion labor, which is any job in which workers are expected to display certain feelings in order to satisfy organizational role expectations.
Emotional labor and burnout are closely linked. It is argued that the danger of emotion labor is that employees are expected to share emotions that are not truly felt. When one's true emotions conflict with the emotions they are expected to portray, emotional dissonance results. Negative consequences of emotional dissonance include burnout, job dissatisfaction, and turnover.
Occupations that are most susceptible to burnout are service jobs such as retail, fast-food, and social work where the emotion labor is prescribed by the organization or the occupation.
Individuals can cope with burnout in several ways. Problem-centered coping involves dealing with the cause of burnout directly. Appraisal-centered coping involves changing the way one things about the stressful situation, or reframing how you view a stressful situation. And emotion-centered coping involves dealing with the negative affective outcomes of burnout. For example, Eric engineer feels overwhelmed by the amount of work he must accomplish. Eric could deal with burnout with emotion-centered coping by using relaxation techniques. He could use appraisal-centered coping by convincing himself he must get the work done in order to advance in the company. Or he can use problem-centered coping by delegating some of his work to another employee.
The organization can also play a role in helping employees cope with burnout. Socialization programs can be designed to enhance the clarity of employee role definitions. PDM can also be used in order to help employees feel more valued and feel a greater sense of control.
Lastly, social support is another avenue for coping with burnout. Three major functions of social support include emotional support, informational support, and instrumental support. Emotional support involves letting another person know they are cared for in order to boost self-esteem. Informational support involves providing facts and advice to help an individual cope. Information can help decrease job-related stressors such as role conflict and workload. It can also provide information for dealing with burnout. Instrumental support is providing an individual with physical or material resources in order to help them cope. Such as helping a coworker finish a project or sending an employee to management training to sharpen their skills.
In order to develop and deliver communication training to trainees in organizations, the trainer should use the needs-centered training model. The trainer's main focus should be on the needs of the learners, and each step in the communication training process should be designed to meet those needs.
Needs assessment: before the trainer begins training trainees, they should conduct a needs assessment to evaluate and identify what learners do not yet know, or the important or necessary skills they cannot yet perform. Also determines skills and information the learners already possess. In order to conduct a needs assessment, trainers can use survey methods (Likert scale, checklists, yes/no responses, open-ended questions, rank order, multiple choice questions) interviews, and observation to determine the needs of an organization and its employees.
Based on the results of the needs assessment, the trainer should analyze the training tasks. This entails analyzing the specific task to be taught based on the trainees' needs, and creating a step-by-step description of what the trainee should do and know in order to perform the detailed task. Trainers can adapt, adjust, and revise the training content to help trainees master the necessary material.
Curriculum development: Next the trainer should create objectives or learning outcomes that they want the trainees to accomplish. A training objective is a concise statement that describes what the trainee should be able to do when the training is complete. The training objective should be observable, (a type of behavior that can be literally observed in some way - should be able to verify) measurable, (assess how accurately or effectively the behavior was performed) attainable, (realistic) and specific (identify the precise actions that you expect the trainees to be able to perform)
Design curriculum: The trainer then must compile and organize the information that will be taught in order to achieve the training objectives. Trainer should: Teach the skill in chronological order (but teach simple tasks before more complex ones.) Teach the skill effectively by telling, showing, inviting, encouraging, and correcting. Enhance learning motivation by actively involving trainees in the material. Vary the stimulus to keep trainees engaged. And tie a ribbon around the lesson at the end to bring the lesson to a close.
Training content: the training content is the information the trainees need to know and the behaviors they will be expected to perform. Trainer can use internal sources (what the trainer already knows) and external sources (research, knowledge, and experience the trainer doesn't already have). Trainer should evaluate the material to be sure it is relevant to the training objectives, appropriate to the training time-frame, culturally and intellectually appropriate to the trainees' backgrounds. This information can help the trainer develop quality training programs that will ultimately meet the needs of the trainees.
Training methods: In order to present the training content, trainers must choose which training method(s) to use. There is a variety of methods to convey the content and get trainees involved with the training content. In order to choose the best training method, trainers should consider their trainees, the learning objectives, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
Method options include: Lecturing, experimental activities, and group discussions. Lecture: Advantages - economical, controllable, flexible. Disadvantages - trainer centered, passive learning, boring.
Experimental activities: Advantages - engaging, trainee self confidence, trainees ability to transfer content. Disadvantages - underdeveloped, gimmicky, artificial, threatening. Group discussion: Advantages - share and participate, learn from each other, safe environment for sharing different opinions. Disadvantages - easily lose focus, dominated by outspoken trainee, discussion can become emotional and destructive if not managed well.
Training assessment: After delivering the training content, trainers should assess the training session to evaluate how effectively the training was received. The ultimate test of the success of a training session is whether trainees used the information they learned, and if the training made a difference in how they communicate with others.