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Terms in this set (102)
What is "cherry picking?" How does it violate truth-seeking?
It's to pick or accept only certain aspects of a whole truth. It violates truth seeking because it's being ignorant to the other aspects of an argument you are choosing to ignore and therefore not allowing you to accept the whole truth.
What did the USA do when Japan invaded China in 1941?
USA responded with an embargo on their oil imports
What do many experts believe caused Japan to attack the USA at Pearl Harbor in 1941?
Because of the embargo on their oil imports
As nations develop, the quality of life is supposed to improve. As a nation grows, what two things also grow?
Energy use and pollution
Muller states that the IPCC cannot reach a stronger conclusion about what is really causing global warming. What reason does Muller give? Hint: it has something to do with the sky.
Because we don't know enough about cloud coverage and how to predict how clouds change when temperature rises
Which country is second (to China) per GPD as far as emitting carbon dioxide pollution into the atmosphere?
How much more energy does gasoline deliver when compared to an equal weight of TNT?
Gasoline delivers 5X the energy of an equal weight of TNT
How many tons of CO2 are released into the atmosphere from each coal burning power plant in China every 10 seconds?
Hydrogen cars are certainly a possibility. However, consider the size of a car's fuel tank. Compare the energy of a gallon of liquid hydrogen to the energy of a gallon of gasoline?
Liquid hydrogen has 4.5 times less energy per gallon than gasoline. It simply takes up a lot more space.
To be "confident in reasoning" is to trust your own reasoning skills to yield good judgement. Identify 4 items of evidence Muller offers that proves he is confident in his reasoning when he claims global warming is a problem?
1. Antartica --> what happens when it melts and how it is in fact melting due to measurements collected from the Grace satellites
2. Changes in major weather patterns
3. Climates may not be able to adapt (Alaska's permafrost)
4. Rainfall will become less reliable (California's drought)
What is another word for "refined oil"?
What does burning gasoline produce that causes smog?
Why is gasoline (refined oil) such a great weapon for terrorists?
It's low in cost, has a lot of energy, and purchasing it doesn't require an special license.
Why is oil so popular worldwide?
Because it carries huge amounts of energy
Which can store more energy? Gasoline or Batteries?
Compare the energy that can be delivered by one bullet compared to the same weight in gasoline
Gasoline delivers 720 times the energy of a bullet
Why isn't electrolysis a sensible means of removing hydrogen from water?
Because it's not as efficient because some of the electrical energy is converted into heat during the process
Which will travel a greater distance? a bullet leaving a short rifle or the same/similar bullet leaving a long rifle?
The same/similar bullet leaving a long rifle
Gasoline does not release its energy when it is sitting in a gas tank with car turned off. It must be mixed with the right amount of oxygen to "burn" and release its energy. Which part(s) of a car mix the fuel with air?
Fuel injector or carburetor
When gasoline burns or explodes, it produces water and carbon dioxide. If the combustion is incomplete, what deadly gas is created?
Gasoline cannot burn (explode) without first being mixed with he right amount of oxygen. What does gunpowder use instead of oxygen when it explodes?
Gunpowder uses potassium nitrate in place of oxygen
What types of oxidizers are used with rockets?
liquid oxygen or hydrogen peroxide
Considering the vast amount of calories (a unit of energy) in the food we eat, which is the better way to lose weight? Exercise more or eat less?
What is gasohol?
Ethanol mixed with gasoline
What can scientists do to determine whether the real culprit is the coal soot from China or the carbon dioxide?
Place soot control technology in factories
An eyes doctor can tell is there UV damage in your eyes. In addition to possible eye damage, what other damage can UV light cause to human bodies?
UV is dangerous because the individual photons carry much more energy than regular light. These photons can break DNA a part and cause mutations
What protection does ozone gas provide us with?
It protects us from most of the deadly UV rays
At what altitude is ozone gas created? (Units - Give your answer in feet above sea level)
40,000 - 60,000
What two gases make up 99% of Earth's atmosphere
Nitrogen and Oxygen
Greenhouse gases are actually quite helpful to the Earth. If the atmosphere contained only oxygen and nitrogen, what would the average temperature of the Earth's surface be? (Don't forget proper units!)
12 Degrees Farenheight
What were the pair of satellites known as GRACE measuring?
Measuring changes in Antarctic ice from 2002 to 2005
What would happen to the oceans of the Earth if the Earth's atmosphere had no greenhouse gases?
They would turn to ice
Which does Muller believe is a better biofuel? ethanol (made from corn) or butanol?
Which takes up more physical space? liquid hydrogen or gasoline?
What is the main reason we are not able to use antimatter as fuel?
It explodes on contact with matter
Why does Muller say that political exaggeration about global warming might be a good thing?
Because otherwise the public might not believe them or do anything. Caution is interpreted not as a good science, but as a weakness.
Why is Highway 4 in Alaska so bumpy?
Spotty drainage from partially melted permafrost; costly repairs must be done every summer.
What is causing the "drunken" trees" and the sunken meadows in Alaska?
Rising of temperatures because the permafrost melts and therefore the soil becomes loosened, and for sunken meadows, when trees are cleared the meadows then endure direct sunlight and the permafrost melts.
How many of the Alaskan spruce forest has been killed by the infestation of bark beetles?
4 millions acres
A) If all of Antarctica melts, how high will sea level rise? B) What will happen to New York City? Be specific.
A) It will rise over 250 feet
B) It will be completely flooded
Is water vapor a greenhouse gas?
Who is Richard Reid?
Al-Qaeda terrorist who tried lighting a fuse on his shoe bomb to blow up a plane.
Before 9/11 why did Mohammad Atta take many trips to rural airports?
To learn about crop dusters, and try to obtain a loan to buy one.
What makes Air Tractor 502 (crop duster) an unlikely terrorist weapon of the future?
Because it's very difficult to fly, and the crop duster community is very tight knit so anyone trying to infiltrate them will immediately be reported to the FBI
What did Atta plan to do if he obtained any crop dusters?
Modify their tanks to hold more gasoline
Why might Air Tractor 52 (crop dusters) be the ideal tool for terrorists?
Because it flies close the ground; isn't on radar, and can carry massive amounts of gasoline.
Air Tractor 52's (crop duster) fuel tank and amount of liquid it can carry in its fertilizer container?
130 gallons and 320 gallons
Total gallons of gasoline any Air Tractor 52 can carry?
What type of airplane can terrorists use instead of a crop duster or commercial plane?
Why is using a smaller plane more difficult for terrorists to use in an attack?
Because it's harder to get and fly, and there would be suspicions.
False alarm rate of a sniffer
Less than 1 in 1000
Things Zarcarias did before 9/11 that prompted someone to report his suspicious behavior
He went to flight school, failed his written exam, and told his teachers he wasn't interested in in learning how to take off or land.
Terrorist attack occurring a week after 9/11
Letters containing anthrax were mailed out to ABC, NBC, and CBS, as well to the New York Post and the National Enquirer.
Who was Robert Stevens?
The first person to die from a biological warfare on US grounds
Number of people diagnosed with symptoms of anthrax infections and death
Spread of anthrax on farms
Spreads its spores only when released from decaying bodies, typically from dead cattle on farms.
Nation that would suffer the least from smallpox? Nation that would suffer the most?
United States would suffer the least because of the healthcare system, third world countries and developing would suffer the most.
If a few grams of anthrax were mailed and dispersed efficiently, how many people would die?
How long did it take for anthrax spores to settle to the ground and become nearly harmless?
Along to finding anthrax spores at the Us Senate and House of Reps, what were some other places where spores were detected?
White House Mail Facility, Supreme Court, CIA mail facility, Pentagon, and all over Washington D.C.
What happened to the anthrax treated with bleach?
Most of it was still viable
"Mad Scientist" of the future most likely to be?
When did the United States attack the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
How many neutrons are released when a U-235 atom explodes during nuclear fission?
Consider the following three types of materials that can be used to build a powerful nuclear weapon of mass destruction (WMD): uranium , plutonium, and hydrogen. Of the three mentioned, which type of nuclear weapon is the most powerful and hence, the most destructive?
Where can a rogue nation with a nuclear power plant get plutonium to build a nuclear weapon with?
From the waste product of the abundant form of uranium known as U-238 that is used in the nuclear reactors in nuclear power plants. (U-238 gradually becomes plutonium in the nuclear reactor)
It is unlikely (very very unlikely) that an unsophisticated terrorist group like al-Qaeda will be able to get and launch a nuclear weapon. What will likely remain the terrorists' weapon of choice?
The Davy Crocket nuclear weapon is small enough to be carried by one man. How much does it weigh?
Which two people are considered to be terrorists who attacked the United States?
Richard Reid and Mohammed Atta
Who was the notorious shoe bomber?
Think about what is happening in an exploding nuclear weapon when a massive amount of energy is being rapidly released from the nuclei of an uranium-235 atoms that are rapidly splitting open in a chain reaction. When a single U-235 fissions (breaks apart), tow neutrons are released and some fission fragments are also released. How many fission fragments are released when one uranium-235 atom is split open?
Consider a uranium-based nuclear weapon made of pure U-235. The goal of such a weapon is to release the energy contained inside of the uranium nuclei by splitting open the nuclei in the uranium-235 atoms that are inside of the weapon. How many neutrons are released from the nucleus of one U-235 atom when it fissions (splits apart)?
Consider a uranium-baed nuclear weapon. When a U-235 atom splits apart during nuclear fission, what are the four "products" of such a catastrophic action?
2 neutrons and 2 fission fragments
Which product of nuclear fission (the splitting apart of the nucleus of an atoms) is equal to approximately half of the nucleus of a U-235 atom?
A fission fragment
TNT is not nearly the WMD that an A-bomb is. How fast were the air molecules moving immediately after the TNT bomb exploded in the al-Qaeda terrorist attack on the World Trade Center parking garage in 1993?
15,000 feet per second
A nuclear fission chain reaction is what occurs when a uranium-based nuclear weapon is successfully detonated. Lots of energy is released from the atomic nuclei that split apart in an extremely short span of time. Which part of the U-235 atom splits open to release its energy?
The "nuclear" part of the phrase "nuclear weapon" sounds very similar to what part of the atom
Give an example of a small nuclear weapon
The Davy Crocket (suitcase bomb)
The Davy Crocket nuclear weapon "suitcase bomb" does not have to be released from an airplane as big as a B-52 bomber. In fact it can be launches without the assistance of an airplane. How can the Davy Crocket be launched?
from a recoilless rifle
During the nuclear fission process, when the desired chain reaction is occurring in which the atomic nuclei of U-235 atoms are exploding or "breaking apart", which part of a "breaking apart nucleus" shoots out and bombards another U-235 atom and splits that U-235 atom's nucleus open?
The 2 neutrons that are released during the fissioning process shoot out of a U-235 atom that is splitting apart. Each neutron is capable of flying toward a nearby U-235 atom, colliding with the nucleus, splitting it open.
How many pounds of uranium were used in the bomb that was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima near the end of World War 2.
approximately 80 pounds
Regarding the nuclear fission chain reaction that occurred in the nuclear bomb the United States dropped on Hiroshima, how many generations of explosions of the atomic nuclei were there during the chain reaction of the nuclear fission process?
Gasoline releases its energy slowly in comparison to TNT which releases its energy quickly. Think of how many hours the World Trade Center fires burned on 9/11. As long as the fire was still burning, the gasoline was probably still releasing energy. The nuclear weapon that was dropped on Hiroshima exploded and released its energy in...?
in less than a millionth of a second
Russian nuclear bombs have a two-stage detonation process. Detonating a nuclear weapon is not easy. You must be properly trained in order to do it. What will happen if a terrorist gains access to one of these weapons and begins to tamper with it?
The design of the nuclear weapon will "destroy itself" and the bomb will no longer be able to be detonated or even reverse engineered by someone wishing to steal the design of the bomb and make a copy of it
When a nation builds a nuclear weapon, should that nation test the bomb or just hope the best and not test it?
The nation should always include a testing phase in its nuclear weapons program
Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive element that is found in the earth. Thorium can be used in a nuclear weapon power plant. Which type of uranium is used in nuclear reactors in nuclear power plants in the United States?
The United States uses partially enriched uranium in which 97% of the uranium is U-238 and only 3% is U-235
Which type of Uranium is sued in nuclear weapons?
When a nation tests a new nuclear weapon, is the weapon tested in the ground or is it flown through the air in the direction of a rogue nation?
The world does not allow nuclear weapons that are being tested to be launched into the air because an exploding nuclear bomb might release radiation that will fall all over the place and contaminate areas where living creatures live. Nuclear weapons that are being tested must be exploded in the ground, not in the air that we share
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty forbids nations from extracting plutonium from the waste produce of a nuclear reactor in a nuclear power plant and probably from any other nuclear reactor for that matter. Yet, the rogue nation North Korea does not allow its nuclear power plant facilities to be inspected because it is guilty of extracting plutonium from the waste product in the nuclear reactor of the nuclear power plant and building nuclear weapons with the plutonium. Technically, what is North Korea doing?
It is reprocessing the fuel by removing the plutonium from the waste product of the reactor. It is using the plutonium to build nuclear weapons.
Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive material that is found in the earth. It can be used in nuclear reactors. Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive material that is found in the earth. What kind of uranium is used in the nuclear reactors in nuclear power plants in the United States?
In a nuclear reactor: 97% is uranium-238. Only 3% is U-235
Uranium-238 is not used in nuclear weapons. U-238 is the abundant form of uranium used in nuclear power plants in the United States. What type of Uranium is used in a nuclear weapon?
Which two types of radioactive elements are found naturally occurring in the Earth?
Uranium and Thorium
How many nucleons does an atoms of uranium-238 have in its nucleus?
When was the horrifying Three Mile Island meltdown?
March 19, 1979
What is the primary purpose of a nuclear reactor in a nuclear power plant?
To produce heat that can be used to make steam that drives a turbine that makes electricity that can be used on devices such as lights and appliances that run on electricity
Regarding Nuclear reactors: In controlled nuclear fission, only one neutron from an exploding uranium-238 atom is needed. The other neutron is not needed. Some of the not needed neutrons are absorbed on things called "control rods." Name two types of material that can be used to make control rods
Cadmium and Boron, but not necessarily together on the same control rod.
What percentage of the Uranium found in a nuclear reactor in the United States is U-235?
If something at a nuclear power plant malfunctions, can a nuclear reactor explode like a nuclear weapon?
No, but it can explode like dynamite that has radioactive material in it. The remote possibility of an explosion is the reason why we do not allow weapons-grade uranium or plutonium to be used as fuel in a nuclear power plant
Is it true that most of the uranium enrichment plants are manufacturing reactor-grade uranium than weapon-grade uranium?
Separating U-235 from U-238 is called
When uranium is mined from the earth, approximately 99.3% of it is U-238. Only 0,7% is U-235. The U-235 must be separated from the abundant U-238. U-238 is not bomb-grade uranium because it cannot fission successfully like an atom of U-235 can. The problem with U-238 is that it can actually absorb neutrons that are produced during the fissioning process. When this happens, the result is the creation of plutonium. If an atoms absorbs a neutron, the atom is obviously not splitting apart. Which device was used to enrich nearly all of the uranium that was used in the Hiroshima bomb?
A calutron is a device that can be used to enrich uranium. It is shaped like a giant letter "C." Where did the calutron get its name?
The calutron was invented, built, and named by Ernest Lawrence. He named the calutron in honor of the University of California at Berkley. The nickname for the university is "Cal."
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