471 terms

AP Human Geography Review

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absolute location
The exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system.
cartography
science or art of making maps
circular pattern
Objects that circle another object, another name for it is Centralized Pattern; For example, in an Islamic city, houses and public buildings may circle around the mosque, or house of worship.
cultural landscapes
The products of complex interactions between humans and their environments.
daylight savings time
the practice of temporarily advancing clocks during the summertime so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less
distortion
a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map
environmental geography
The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa.
equator
an imaginary line drawn around the earth equally distant from both poles, dividing the earth into northern and southern hemispheres and constituting the parallel of latitude 0°.
Eratosthenes
The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography."
formal regions
Also called uniform regions, an area that has striking similarities in terms of one or a few physical or cultural features.
functional (nodal) regions
areas organized around cores, or nodes
GIS
Geographic Information System; a computer system that captures, stores, analyzes, and displays data.
globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in that time zone ecompassing the Prime Meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
GPS
Global Positioning System; uses a system of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers to determine precise absolute locations on earth.
grid pattern
Also called a rectilinear pattern, reflects a rectangular system of land survey adopted in much of the country under the Ordinance of 1785. Streets form grids and are sometimes labeled "1st", "2nd", "3rd" streets and so on.
Hecataeus
Lived in the late 6th and early 5th centuries B.E.C., a Greek scientist, he wrote a book about geography and illustrated a map of the countries and inhabitants of the known world.
human geography
a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the built environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earth's surface
Idrisi
An 11th century Arab geographer that worked for the king of Sicily to collect geographical information into a remarkably accurate representation of the world. Under his direction, an academy of geographers gathered maps and went out on their own scientific expeditions.
Immanuel Kant
German philosopher and geographer in the 1700s that defined geography as the study of interrelated spatial patterns.
landscapes
The overall appearance of an area that is shaped by both human and natural influences
latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
linear pattern
when the pattern in along straight lines, like rivers, streets, or railroad tracks.
local time
The standard time in the region that a person lives in
location
The position of anything on Earth's surface.
longitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°).
George Perkins Marsh
An inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, "Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action," provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.
Mercator projection
a map projection of the earth onto a cylinder
meridian
an arc drawn between North and South poles that measures longitude
multi-national corporations
An example of economic globalization in which the business has centers of operation in many parts of the globe.
parallel
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
pattern
the arrangement of objects on earth's surface in relation to other objects
perceptual (vernacular) regions
places that people believe to exist as a part of their cultural identity
periphery
the outer boundary of a region; Countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. The world economic periphery includes Africa (except for South Africa), parts of South America, and Asia.
Peters Projection
An equal-area projection purposely centered on Africa in an attempt to treat all regions of Earth equally.
place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
physical geography
one of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.
physical site characteristic
A location that includes climate, topography, soil, water sources, vegetation, and elevation.
prime meridian
The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
Ptolemy
a Greek scholar who lived five hundred years later than Eratosthenes, recalculated the circumference of the earth to be much smaller - by about 9000 miles. He was wrong, but his mistake was taken as truth for hundreds of years. Despite his famous miscalculations, his Guide to Geography included many rough maps of landmasses and bodies of water, and he developed a global grid system that was a forerunner to our modern system of latitude and longitude.
random pattern
a pattern that exists if no regular distribution can be seen
regionalization
the organization of earth's surface into distinct areas that are viewed as different from other areas
Robinson projection
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
Carl Sauer
early 20th century geographer from California, shaped the field of Human Geography by arguing that cultural landscapes (products of interactions between humans and their environments) should be the main focus of geographic study. His study is basic to environmental geography, a field that centers on the interaction of human and physical geography.
scale
The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface.
site
the physical and human-transformed characteristics of a place
situation
characteristic that refers to relative location
solar time
based on the position of the sun in the sky as the day progresses
space
the physical gap or distance between two objects
space time compression
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
spatial organization
organization according to location, position, or direction
spatial perspective
observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
time zone
24, 15 degree sections that each represent a different hour of the day
topography
A description of surface features of land.
toponym
Place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams.
U.S. Census Bureau
a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
"why of where"
Critical to geographers, the explanations for why a spatial pattern occurs
activity space
The space within which daily activity occurs.
agricultural revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
AIDS
Immune system disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which over a period of years weakens the capacity of the immune system to fight off infection so that weight loss and weakness set in and other afflictions such as cancer or pneumonia may hasten an infected person's demise
arable land
land suitable for growing crops
arithmetic growth
population growth where population increases by the same amount over each time interval
arithmetic population density
The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit
awareness space
Locations or places about which an individual has knowledge even without visiting all of them, includes activity space and additional areas newly encountered or about which one acquires information.
carrying capacity
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
chain migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
circulation
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
critical distance
the distance beyond which cost, effort, and means strongly influence our willingness to travel
crude birth rate
The number of live births per year per 1,000 people.
crude death rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
demographic equation
The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.
demographic momentum
this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
demographic transition theory
Multistage model, based on Western Europe's experience, of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; this is followed by the convergence of birth rates and death rates at a low overall level
demography
Scientific study of human populations.
population density
A measurement of the number of persons per unit land area.
dislocation
people forced from their home due to ethnic strife, war, or natural disasters
distance decay
the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
dot maps
Maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population
doubling rate
The length of time needed to double the population
emigration
Migration from a location (Exit migration)
endemic
Native or confined to a particular region or people
epidemiologic transition
The shift from high death rates to low death rates in a population as a result of modern medical and sanitary developments. Also called the "mortality revolution"
ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
exponential growth
Growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size. Also called population growth at a "geometric rate"
female infantcide
The preference to have a son is so extreme that it reduces the survival rate of baby girls
forced migration
Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.
gravity model
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
immigration
Movement of individuals into a population (In migration)
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
infant mortality rate
The percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.
in-migration
the total number of immigrants who arrive in a country in a given time period
internal migration
Permanent Movement within a particular country.
inter-regional migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another
intervening obstacles
Any forces or factors that may limit human migration.
intervening opportunity
the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
intra-regional migration
Permanent movement within one region of a country.
life expectancy
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live
linear growth
Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.
migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
migration selectivity
Only people exhibiting certain characteristics in a population choosing to migrate
natural increase
Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths. Natural increase of a does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements.
neo-Malthusians
group who built on Malthus' theory and suggested that people wouldn't just starve for lack of food, but would have wars about food and other scarce resources
net-migration rate
Difference between immigrants and emmigrants per 1,000 people
one child policy
A policy implemented by the Chinese government as a method of controlling the population.
out-migration
the total number of immigrants who leave a country in a given time period
overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
physiological population density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
population concentrations
Areas of the world with large population density.
population explosion
The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase
population geography
a division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
population pyramid
A model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.
pull factors
Factors that induce people to move to a new location. Also called "centripetal factors"
push factors
Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil. Also called "centrifugal factors"
race
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.
Ernst Ravenstein
Created the laws of migration that state that most migrants move a short distance, move to an urban area, are adults, take the process in steps, and create a migration in the opposite direction
refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
restrictive population policies
laws which discourage or punish people for having large families. (anti-natal policies)
space-time prism
The set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time.
spatial interaction
the movement of peoples, ideas, and commodities between different places
stationary population level
The level at which a national population ceases to grow
step migration
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
sustainability
The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained
total fertility rate
The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.
voluntary migration
movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.
zero population growth
a condition in which the population of a country does not grow but remains stable. This condition comes about when the birth rate plus immigration equals the death rate plus emigration.
acculturation
(n.) the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another; the resultant blend
animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
artifacts
object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced
assimilation
Adopting the traits of another culture. Often happens over time when one immigrates into a new country.
Baha'i
Religion founded by Baha'ullah who declared himself as a prophet of God/"the promised one". Teachings: World peace through unity of all religions, live a simple life, dedication to serving others.
behaviors
actions that people take
beliefs
specific statements that people hold to be true, almost always based on values
bilingualism
The ability to speak two languages
Buddhism
A religion founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama which teaches that the most important thing in life is to reach peace by ending suffering.
Confucianism
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
contagious diffusion
The spread of a disease, an innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place.
creole
a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in a place of the mother tongue
cultural determinism
the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels. This supports the theory that environmental influences dominate who we are instead of biologically inherited traits.
cultural diffusion
The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.
cultural ecology
The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment
cultural geography
Subfield of human geography that looks at how culture varies over space
cultural hearths
the areas where civilizations first began that radiated the customs, innovations, and ideologies that culturally transformed the world
cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape.
cultural relativism
The practice of trying to understand a culture on its own terms and to judge a culture by its own standards.
cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
culture complex
a unique combination of culture traits for a particular culture group
culture region
a portion of the earth's surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics
culture system
sharing enough cultural traits and complexes to be recognized as a distinctive cultural entity
culture trait
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban
Daoism
Chinese religion that believes the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from 'the way' or 'path' of nature.
dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
diasporas
Enclaves of ethnic groups settled outside of their homelands.
Durkheim's sacred and profane
French sociologist Emile Durkheim, religion is important in explaining anything that surpasses the limits of our knowledge. As human beings, we define most objects as profane, or ordinary, but we define some things as sacred, or extraordinary, inspiring a sense of awe and reverence.
Eastern Orthodox
The Christian religion of the Byzantine Empire in the middle east that formed from Christianity's schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire. The Christian church ruled by the Byzantine emperor and the patriarchs of various historically significant Christian centers/cities.
environmental determinism
A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.
ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
ethnocentrism
Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group.
extinct language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
folk culture region
an area where many people who live in a land space share at least some traditions or customs
folk life
the composite culture, both material and non-material, that shapes the lives of folk societies
geographic region
a location based on locational and environmental circumstances as well as cultural properties.
Torste Hagerstrand
Swedish geographer. He is known for his work on migration, cultural diffusion and time geography.
hierarchical diffusion
the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
Hinduism
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements in which ideologies replaced religion as key cultural components.
independent inventions
The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
Indo-European language family
Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by 50% of the world's people
Islam
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.
isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
Judaism
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
language families
Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
language sub-family
group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)
lingua franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
linguistic fragmentation
a condition in which many languages are spoken, each by a relatively small number of people
linguistic geography
the study of the character and spatial pattern of dialects and language
Mahayana
The name of the more mystical and larger of the two main Buddhist sects. This one originated in India in the 400s CE and gradually found its way north to the Silk road and into Central and East Asia.
Marxism
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
material culture
tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a specific culture group and reflective of their traditions, lifestyles, and technologies
migrant diffusion
Where the spread of cultural traits is slow enough to weaken in the place of origin by the time it reaches other areas.
monotheistic religion
Belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe
multilingualism
societies in which two or more languages are in common use
non-material culture
Human creations, such as values, norms, knowledge, systems of government, language, and so on, that are not embodied in physical objects
norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
official langugae
A language given by the country to the government for laws, reports, public places, ad objects (like road signs, currency, stamps, etc.)
pidgin
Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. The pidgin has some characteristics of each language.
popular culture
general mass of people primarily urban based, constantly adopting, conforming to, and quickly abandoning ever-changing common modes of behavior and fads of material and nonmaterial culture
Protestants
A Christian that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation; today any member of the Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation
regional identity
An awareness of being a part of a group of people living in a culture region.
Religious branches
large and basic division within a religion
Religious denominations
divisions of branches that unite local groups in a single administrative body
Religious sects
relatively small groups that do not affiliate with the more mainstream denominations
relocation diffusion
the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
Roman Catholics
This branch of Christianity arose because of the Roman's split by Emperor Diocletian.
shamanism
tribal religion; involves community acceptance of a shaman, religious leader, healer, and worker of magic who can intercede with the spirit world
Shiite
a member of one of the two major Muslim sects; believe that the descendants of Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law, Ali, are the true Muslim leaders
Sikhism
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Sunni
"Traditionalists," the most popular branch of Islam; Sunnis believe in the legitimacy of the early caliphs, compared to the Shiite belief that only a descendant of Ali can lead.
symbolic landscape
landscapes that express values, beliefs, and meanings of a particular culture.
symbols
Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.
syncretism
The unification or blending of opposing people, ideas, or practices, frequently in the realm of religion. For example, when Christianity was adopted by people in a new land, they often incorporate it into their existing culture and traditions.
Tantrayana
a major branch in Buddhism; located mainly in western China (Tibet) and Mongolia.
Theraveda
Traditional and conservative branch of Buddhism focusing on merit accumulation and sharin
time-distance decay
The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source
toponymy
the study of place names of a region, or toponyms
traditional religion
a religion that has originality and is not modernized, also known as "indigenous," "animism," "primal" or "tribal"
transculturation
An equal exchange of traits or influence between two culture groups occurs
universalizing religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Balkanization
The political term used when referring to the fragmentation or breakup of a region or country into smaller regions or countries. The term comes from the Balkan wars, where the country of Yugoslavia was broken up in to six countries between 1989 and 1992.
binational or multinational state
State that contains more than one nation (example the Soviet Union)
boundary
invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
centripetal force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
centrifugal force
a force that divides people and countries
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
colonies
a group of people who leave their native country to form in a new land a settlement subject to, or connected with, the parent nation.
command economy
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
compact states
A state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.
confederal system
A system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states.
consequent boundaries
boundary that coincides with a particular cultural divide (such as religion, language, or ethnicity); a.k.a. cultural boundaries
core area
the national or world districts of concentrated economic power, wealth, innovation, and advanced technology
core-periphery
A model that describes how economic, political, and/or cultural power is spatially distributed between dominant core regions, and more marginal or dependent semi-peripheral and peripheral regions.
cultural boundary
A boundary that follows the distribution of cultural characteristics.
democratization
The process of establishing representative and accountable forms of government led by popularly elected officials.
devolution
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
positional disputes
involve the disagreement over interpretation of position of the boundary line; occur most often with physical boundaries
territorial disputes
disagreement between states over the control of surface area
resource dispute
disagreement over the control or use of shared resources, such as boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing grounds
functional dispute
(AKA boundary dispute) a disagreement between neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration
economic force
centrifugal forces associated with economic inequalities that lead to the break up of a state
electoral geography
the study of the geographical elements of the organization and results of elections
elongated states
A state with a long, narrow shape. (Example. Chile)
enclaves
Any small and relatively homogenous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region
exclaves
A segment of land that is apart from the mainland of its country (Hawaii and Alaska)
ethnic force
centrifugal forces associated with ethnic differences (language & religion) which can cause the break up of a state
ethnonationalism
the tendency for an ethnic group to see itself as a distinct nation with a right to autonomy or independence. A fundamental centrifugal force.
European Constitution
an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the EU
European Monetary Union
The agreement among the participating member states of the European Union to adopt a single hard currency and monetary system. (the euro)
European Union
An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
federal system
A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
forward capital
A capital city placed in a remote or peripheral area for economic, strategic, or symbolic reasons.
fragmentation
divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity
fragmented states
a state that is not continuous but rather separated parts.
frontiers
lands just beyond the border of a country
geometric boundary
Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines.
gerrymandering
The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent.
geopolitics
The study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur.
government
the leadership and institutions that make policy decisions for a country
heartland theory
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
imperialism
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
institutions
Complex social organizations such as governments, economies, and education systems
integration
the act of uniting or bringing together, especially people of different races
internal boundaries
physical, cultural, or geometric boundaries within a country (such as provinces or states)
irredentism
a policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country
landlocked states
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
market economy
Economic decisions are made by individuals or the open market.
marketization
the term that describes the state's recreation of a market in which property, labor, good, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value.
median-line principle
an approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places.
microstates
States with very small land areas
minority/majority districting
Rearranging districts to allow a minority representative to be elected
mixed economy
An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion.
monetary policy
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates.
multicore state
A state that possesses more than one core or dominant region, be it economic, political, or cultural.
nation
A sense of unity binding the people of a state together; devotion to the interests of a particular country or nation, an identification with the state and an acceptance of national goals.
nation-state
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
perforated states
a state whose territory is interrupted by a separate, independent state totally contained within its borders
physical boundary
Political boundaries that correspond with prominent physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers.
political geography
The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes.
political culture
An overall set of values widely shared within a society
politicization of religion
Use of religious principles to promote political ends
politics
Method of maintaining, managing, and gaining control of government (who gets what, when, and how)
primate city
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
privatization
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
Friedrich Ratzel
Organic Theory of Nations - nations act like living organisms - must grow and will eventually decline
relative location
The position of a place in relation to another place
rimland theory
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest.
Security Council
Five permanent members( US, UK, France, China, USSR) with veto power in the UN. Promised to carry out UN decisions with their own forces.
separatist movement
refers to the social movements for a particular group of people to separate from the dominant political institution under which they suffer
shatter belts
Zone of great cultural complexity containing many small cultural groups who find refuge in areas of cultural tension.
sovereignty
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
spatial force
The breakup of a state at its margins due to distance and remoteness
stateless nation
a group of people with a common political identity who do not have a territorially defined, sovereign country of their own
states
countries with defined boundaries and sovereignty to control what happens within those borders
supranational organization
Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives. (Example U.N. or E.U.)
territorial morphology
A state's geographical shape, which can affect its spatial cohesion and political viability.
"third wave" of democratization
Most recent wave of democracy which began in the 1970s; characterized by the defeat of dictatorial or totalitarian rulers from South America to Eastern Europe to some parts of Africa
three pillars
Informal term denoting the main areas in which the EU has worked since the Maastricht Treaty. 1. the traditional involvement in trade and other economic matters 2. cooperation in justice and home affairs 3. the desire to create a Common Foreign and Security Policy which is the most visionary and controversial aspect of the EU today
unitary state
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
agribusiness
The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products.
agricultural hearths
areas of settlement during the neolithic period, especially along major rivers, from where farming and cultivation of livestock eminates
biotechnology
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
cereal grains
Corn, wheat, rice, and other grasses
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
commercial agriculture
term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor, and the latest technology
desertification
The process by which fertile land becomes desert,typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or agriculture.
dispersed settlement pattern
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
enclosure
fencing or hedging large blocks of land for experiments with new techniques of farming
erosion
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
extensive agriculture
a crop or livestock system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit area of land. May be part of either a subsistence or a commercial economy
extensive subsistence agriculture
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
Green Revolution
The worldwide campaign to increase agricultural production from the 1940s to 60s, stimulated by new fertilizers and strains of wheat such as that by Norman Borlaug. The movement saved millions from starvation.
hamlets
smallest of urban settlements with counted population
villages
A small number of people who live in a cluster of houses in a rural area, slightly larger than a hamlet
horticulture
the cultivation of plants for subsistence through non-intensive use of land and labor
hunters and gatherers
people who survive by eating animals that they have caught or plants they have gathered
industrial agriculture
intensive farming practices involving mechanization and mass production
intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
irrigation
A way of supplying water to an area of land
job specialization
The process by which a division of labor occurs as different workers specialize in different tasks over time
labor intensive agriculture
Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful.
location theory
a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of economic activities & the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated
long-lot survey system
distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
Mediterranean agriculture
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, and a host of nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations.
mercantilism
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
metes and bounds
A term used in describing the boundary lines of land, setting forth all the boundary lines together with their terminal points and angles. Metes (length or measurements) and Bounds (boundaries) description is often used when a great deal of accuracy is required.
milkshed
ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling
mixed crop and livestock farming
most common form of commercial agriculture in the US west of the Appalachia Mtns. Farmers grow crops and raise livestock on the same land spread, with most of the crops fed to animals rather than people. Income comes from the sale of animal products, such as beef, milk, and eggs.
Neolithic Revolution
(10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
nomadism
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.
nucleated settlement pattern
settlement clustered around a central point, such as a village green or church. Nucleation is fostered by defense considerations, localized water supply, the incidence of flooding, or rich soils so that farmers can easily get to their smaller, productive fields while continuing to live in the village.
organic agriculture
The use of crop rotation, natural fertilizers such as manure, and biological pest control, as opposed to artificial fertilizers,pesticides, hormones, antibiotics, additives, and genetically modified organisms, to promote healthy vigorous crops.
pampas
A grasslands region in Argentina and Uruguay
pastoral nomadism
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
patriarchal system
System in which men hold power in the family, economy, and government
plantation farming
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
post-industrial societies
Societies where technology supports a Service-and-Information based economy
primary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
primogeniture
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
quaternary sector
Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.
rectangular survey system
Also called the Public Land Survey, the system was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.
Second Agricultural Revolution
dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm products.
secondary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
seed agriculture
planting with seeds, starting during the first agricultural revolution, diffused from Southwest Asia across Europe and through North Africa. It also diffused eastward to India from Southwest Asia. Another hearth is southern Mexico and northern Peru, and diffused through the Western Hemisphere.
seed drill
created by Jethro Tull (not the British rock band), it allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths; this boosted crop yields
shifting cultivation
Also known as swidden agriculture;
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
specialization
A focus on a particular activity or area of study
subsistence agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
sustainable agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
tertiary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
Third Agriculture Revolution
'green revolution' rapid diffusion of new ag techniques between 1970's and 1980's, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
truck farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.
vegetative planting
earliest form of plant cultivation; reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots
von Thunen's model
explains and predicts agricultural land use. more INTENSIVE land uses closer to the market place. more EXTENSIVE land farther from the market place. Inner ring is (City), 2nd (Intensive Agriculture), 3rd (Forest resources), 4th (Grain Farming), 5th (Livestock farming
wattle
poles and sticks woven tightly together and then covered with mud. Many African houses are constructed with this way with a thick thatched roof.
wet (lowland) rice
type of intensive subsistence farming found in the large population concentrations of East and South Asia. The crop requires a great deal of time and attention, but under ideal conditions it can provide large amounts of food per unit of land.
winter wheat area
Area in which grain is planted in autumn, survives the winter, and ripens the following summer (Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma)
spring wheat area
Area in which winters are too severe for winter wheat (Montana, North/South Dakota)
acid rain
Rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water.
agglomeration
Grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources.
break-of-bulk
a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another.
bulk-reducing industries
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
bulk-gaining industries
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
capitalist world economy
The single world system, which emerged in the 16th century, committed to production for sale, with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs
compressed modernity
Rapid economic and political change that transformed the country into a stable nation with democratizing political institutions, a growing economy, and an expanding web of nongovernmental institutions.
conglomerate corporations
Massive corporation operating a collection of smaller companies that provide it with specific services in its production process.
deglomeration
the process of deconcentration; the location of industrial or other activities away from established agglomerations in response to growing costs of congestion, competition, and regulation
deindustrialization
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
dependency theory
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
distance decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
economic development
Process of improving economic/material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology
economic geography
the branch of systematic geography concerned with how people support themselves, with the spatial patterns of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, and with the areal variation of economic variation of economic activities over the surface of the earth
export-oriented industrialization
a mercantilist strategy for economic growth in which a country seeks out technologies and develops industries focused specifically on the export market
footloose industry
industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for the location of firms
friction of distance
the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
fossil fuels
Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals.
global warming
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
Gross Domestic Policy (GDP)
the sum total of the value of all goods and services produced in a nation.
GDP per capita
Gross domestic product divided by the number of people in the population.
greenhouse effect
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
industrialization
The development of industries for the machine production of goods.
Infrastructure
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
international division of labor
The process where the assembing procedures for a product are spread out through different parts of the world
Kanto Plain
Japan's dominant region of industrialization, included Tokyo and nearby cities to form a huge metropolitan area
labor intensive industries
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
locational interdependence theory
Theory developed by economist Harold Hotelling that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base.
maquiladora district
manufacturing zone created in the 1960s in northern Mexico just south of the border with the US; workers in the district have produced goods primarily for consumers in the U.S.
Meiji Restoration
The state-sponsored industrialization and westernization effort in the late 19th century that also involved the elimination of the Shogunate and power being handed over to the Japanese Emperor, who had previously existed as mere spiritual/symbolic figure.
modernization model
a model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow. The modernization model (sometimes referred to as modernization theory) maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption
more developed country
Also known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relatively far along a continuum of development.
less developed country
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada.
new international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
newly industrializing country
Countries that have experienced economic growth so that they appear to be somewhere in between MDC (more developed country) and LDC ( less developed country) status.
Northeast District (China)
Manchuria, earliest industrial heartland centered on the region's coal and iron deposits near the city of Shenyang.
Oligarchs (Japan)
industrial and military leaders that came to political power, Japan modernized industries, organized armed forces, and transformed education and transportation systems to follow the western model. (see Meiji Restoration)
Pacific Rim
Region including Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan; typified by rapid growth rates, expanding exports, and industrialization; either Chinese or strongly influenced by Confucian values; considerable reliance on government planning and direction, limitations on dissent and instability.
W.W. Rostow
a pioneering advocate in the 1950's that created the 5 stage model of development (Modernization Theory)
Rostow's 4 Stages of Modernization
1. Traditional Stage
2. Take-off Stage
3. Drive to technological maturity
4. High mass consumption
single market manufacturers
located near the market--save money on transportation, aka products sold primary in one location
site factors
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
space-time compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Special Economic Zones
government-designated areas in China where foreign investment is allowed and capitalistic ventures are encouraged
substitution principle
suggests that business owners can juggle expenses, as long as labor, land rents, transportation, and other costs don't all go up at one time.
sustainable development
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
trading blocs
A group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs
transnational corporations
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
value added productivity
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
variable revenue analysis
An approach to industrial location theory concerned with spatial variations in revenue. It concentrates on the demand side of the industrial location problem, as opposed to the cost side addressed in variable cost analysis.
Immanuel Wallerstein
Geographer and dependency theorist who explained economic development in 1974 using a model of capitalist world economy. (Core-Periphery model; divided the world into three types according to how they fit into the global economy)
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819).
Alfred Weber
Twentieth-century German geographer who created the least cost theory to predict the locational decisions made by industrial operations. (wrote "Theory of the Location of Industries;" explained location of industries in terms of three factors: transportation, labor, agglomeration)
Base ratio
A ratio between workers employed in the basic sector and those employed in the nonbasic sector
Basic sectors
The part of a settlements economy that sells their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
Nonbasic sectors
The part of a settlements economy that sells their products primarily to consumers in the community
E.W. Burgess
Sociologists who created the Concentric Zone Model in 1923; it views cities as growing outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings
Bosnywash
the heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.
census tract
Small county subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the U.S. Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
central business district (CBD)
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
center city
Cities that provide goods and services for the surrounding area.
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Walter Christaller
German geographer who in the early 1930s first formulated Central Place Theory as a series of models designed to explain the spatial distribution of urban centers. Crucial to his theory is the fact that different goods and services vary both in threshold and in range.
city
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
city-state
self-governing communities that include the nearby countryside. First established in the area around the eastern Mediterranean Sea about 2500 years ago by the forerunners of the ancient Greeks.
complementary regions
the merging of two regions for benefit
concentric zone model
Model that describes urban environments as a series of rings of distinct lands using radiating out from a central core, or central business district. Developed by E.W. Burgess
Councils of government
cooperative agencies consisting of representatives from local governments in the region
disamenity sector
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
edge cities
A term introduced by Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the United States away from the CBD toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe. These cities are characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings
export activities
the process of exporting goods from a region
feminization of poverty
The increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children
formative era
The period between about 7000 and 5000 bc which noted the beginnings of the development of states and urbanization
gentrification
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.
ghettos
undesirable neighborhoods, associated with dilapidated housing, high crime rates, and inadequate schools
ghettoization
A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources.
greenbelts
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Harris and Ullman
developed multiple nuclei model explaining that large cities developed by spreading from several places of growth, not just one
hierarchy of central places
according to CPT (Central Place Theory) larger market areas are based in larger settlements, fewer in number, and farther apart; hierarchy of settlements = city, town, village, hamlet
Homer Hoyt
Known for the "Sector Model (Theory of Axial Development)" that modified the concentric zone model of city development. Suggested that various groups expand outward from the city center along railroads, highways, and other transportation arteries.
in situ accretion
where less expensive homes and businesses seem to be in a chronic state of ongoing construction and renovation.
manufacturing city
A city overrun with factories, supply facilities, the expansion of transport systems, and the construction of tenements for a growing labor force.
megacity
A metropolitan area with a total population of over 10 million people according to the United Nations
megalopolis
Several, metropolitan areas that were originally separate but that have joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex.
megastores
Huge stores with a variety of products designed for one-stop shopping. They are usually organized as chains, and originated in the suburbs due to the availability and low cost of land.
mercantile city
A city in which a central square became the focus of the city flanked by royal, religious, public, and private buildings: streets leading to such squares formed the beginnings of a downtown
metropolitan area
Within the United States, an urban area consisting of one or more whole country units, usually containing several urbanized areas, or suburbs, that all act together as a coherent economic whole.
metropolitan statistical area
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
micropolitan statistical area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
multiple nuclei model
Created by Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman in the 1940s, it's a model that suggests that the CBD is losing its dominant position. A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities. There are nine different zones (see image)
multiplier effect
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
nucleated
a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings (e.g., Asian longhouse)
peripheral model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
physical city
a continuous development that contains a central city and many nearby cities, towns, and suburbs
public housing
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
rank-size rule
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
rush hours
The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
settlement geography
the patterns of settlement on the earth's surface
smart growth
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
social area analysis
Statistical analysis used to identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life style live within an urban area.
special-function cities
cities are dominated by one activity such as mining, manufacturing or recreation and serving national and international markets.
sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
suburbs
Residential areas surrounding a city. Shops and businesses moved to suburbia as well as people.
town
a nucleated settlement that contains a CBD but that is small and less functionally complex than a city
transportation centers
cities where major routes converge (roads, railroads, sea traffic, and air transportation)
urban area
A dense core of census tracts, densely settled suburbs, and low-density land that links the dense suburbs with the core
urban elite
a group of decision makers and organizers who controlled the resources, and sometimes the lives of others
urban empire
A nation or group of territories ruled by a single, powerful leader or emperor (Ex. Rome)
urban geography
focuses on how cities function, their internal systems and structures, and the external influences on them
urban hierarchy
A ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions.
urban influence zone
an area outside of a city that is nevertheless affected by the city
urban renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
Louis Wirth
1930s social scientist who wrote that the city was a center of distant, cold interpersonal interaction, and that as a result, the urban dweller experienced alienation.
world city
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
zone in transition
name given to the second ring of the concentric zone model, which surrounds the CBD, in the concentric zone model. This place typically contains industry and poor-quality housing
zone of maturity
Area close to the middle of the concentric zone model where middle class families reside, they generally maintain their homes well enough to keep them from deteriorating
zoning ordinance
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.

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