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Anthropology 1000 ECU Final
Terms in this set (85)
detailed collective knowledge of flora and fauna in their surroundings. Small communities
1st cultivating economy. Naturally occurring plants moved to a garden. Slash and burn tech used to clear land. Consists of single kin group. People own garden produce, not land itself
livelihood based on tending livestock. Diets supplemented with foraging. Herd animals provide subsistence and social status. Kinship determines access to land/resources.
Intensive form of cultivation. Use of domesticated plants. Use of technology. Modification of land. Individual ownership of land. Large increase in # of people supported.
Economic emphasis on manufacturing. Individualism (Labor role determined by function) Globalization (Import of raw materials, Wars erupt over scarce resources)
Foraging, Horticulture, Pastoralism, Agriculture, Industrialization
Reciprocity, Redistribution, Market exchange
How goods are used. Associated with system of distribution. Regarded in terms of capital (Goods used to produce other goods)
The giving and taking without use of money. expecting something in return.
the giving and taking without use of money. Expecting nothing in return.
Primary form of agricultural societies. Centralized authority accumulates goods from society members, redistributes them as it sees fit. Resources often used to improve community infrastructure
Found in industrial societies. Exchange goods (including labor) for money. Value of a good is not fixed. Determined by rules of supply and demand
Kula Ring of the Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea
System of non-competitive, ceremonial exchange. Only men participate. Helps establish, reinforce alliances and trading relationships
The biological distinction of humans based on reproductive makeup
The culturally constructed status assigned to each sex
Culturally determined behavior, activities, attitudes, and values
Variation of status based on gender
phenotypic differentiation between males and females of the same species
Males biologically stronger and have greater aerobic capacity
Childcare compatibility theory
Activities that inhibit effective childcare assigned to males
Economy of effort theory
One gender performs tasks that are related to each other
Men tend to do dangerous activities because they are less of a reproductive loss
Why do men frequently dominate politics and warfare?
Access to weapons and training in their use. Active role in warfare. Men's activities tend to take them great distances from home
What social factors impact the status of women?
Women tend to have higher status in societies that are matrilineal (cherokee indians) or when they are involved with primary subsistence activities.
Individuals with mix of male and female spirits. Serve as dream interpreters and shamans.
Biological males that take on more feminine appearance and women's economic roles(Spirit of Mother Goddess) Have separate religious role( Bless children. Perform marriages) can be prostitutes or entertainers. Can marry men.
The practice of homosexual activity as a cross-cultural pattern
Variation in definition and tolerance of expression. Cultural group may recognize more than two genders. Exclusively same-gender relationships are rare. Homosexuality occurs either as phase or along with heterosexuality
Most basic social grouping. Cultural Universal
Function of a family
Socially approved sexual and reproductive relationship. Basic education and care for offspring. Basis for individual's social identity. Most fundamental economic unit of production
Made up of individuals that live together and share responsibility producing subsistence
Created when newly-married couple move in with either bride's or groom's family. Average 20 people living and working as cohesive unit
Found in industrial and foraging societies. Made up of parents and young children
Refers to where a couple lives after marriage.
Neolocal residence pattern
Matrilocal residence pattern
Groom moves in with bride's family
Patrilocal residence pattern
Bride moves in with groom's family
More formalized structure than family
Function of kinship
Regulates access to property. Determines individual's role in ceremonies. Helps regulate labour. Determines access to leadership positions.
Rules of descent
In each society exist specific rules that determine your kin membership
Kin groups that membership is ascribed. Based on relation to a real or mythical ancestor
Bilateral descent group
Everyone is kin who is connected by blood or adoption. Maximizes size of kin group
Matrilineal descent group
Kin connected through mother's line. Fathers do not count their children as kin
Patrilineal descent group
Lineage traced through male line. Mothers do not include their children in their kin.
All members trace back to one known ancestor
Composed of several lineages
Socially approved economic and reproductive unit
Only one husband and one wife at any given time
When one individual marries more than one spouse at a time
Poly + gyny = many + women. Most common marriage pattern in world
Found in patrilineal societies in extreme geographic locations. Means of preventing the division of small family land holdings and assets.
Method of forming alliances. Also means of attracting mates.
Type of marriage exchange in form of money or goods. Bride's family provides goods for bride to take with her in to marriage. Indication of society where women compete for men. Dowry goods are wife's property.
Found in societies where women's labour is valued. Horticulture. Means of compensating bride's family for loss of her future labour. Associated with polygyny
How does the dowry method provide security for women?
Provide security in two ways: Dissuade men from abusing wife. Support wife if she chooses to leave marriage
Ability to exercise one's will over others.
People that you have power over approve of you having that power
Power without authority
Socially approved influence
Fluid group membership. Bands are autonomous with own code of conduct. No formal leaders. Decisions made by group consensus or informal headman. Banishment worst form of punishment.
Made up of culturally distinct groups in localized areas. Kinship is key to access to land. Nominal leadership positions. Leader called Big Man or Head Man.
Appear around 5 to 6,000 years ago. Transitional political system. Structured like kingdom with monarchy. Power and authority given to one person. Leadership is ascribed. Allegiance is to chief, not the position
Involved a hierarchical and centralized government. Compartmentalization and bureaucracy. Achieved position. Allegiance is to position, not individual. Public policy executed through laws.
What are the main goals of anthropologists when we study religion?
-Describe religions and religious practices and beliefs.
-Explain how they fit in the broader cultural system
-Seek generalizations about the nature of religion
What science cannot explain. Anything taken on faith that cannot be tested.
Cultural knowledge of the supernatural. Consists of a belief in the supernatural and ways with dealing or interacting with it.
Belief in a supernatural impersonal force that infuses all things. World exists as a balance. Foraging cultures
Belief in personal supernatural forces. Ghosts and spirits. Associated with pastoralism and horticulture (kin-based cultures). Spirits act as form of social control
Belief in multiple deities. In general, gods have limitless power. Gods reflect chief. Gods specialize in one area of life.
Belief in single, all powerful deity. Associated with state system in industrialized societies. Hierarchy among lesser supernatural beings
Not pure polytheistic systems. Mirrors transition from chiefdom to state. Transition from true polytheism to monotheism.
What are the ways in which people can interact with the supernatural?
What is the definition and purpose of magic?
Both belief and practice. When people can compel supernatural to act in an intended way
How does sorcery/witchcraft function as a religious custom?
Consist of attempts to invoke spirits to work harm against people
includes use of materials, objects and medicines to invoke spirits
same goal as sorcery, but achieved through emotion and thought alone
Associated with foragers and some horticultural societies. Part time male specialist. Primary focus is healing. High social status
Low social status. Often found among pastoralists and agriculturalists.
Often female. Part time practitioners. Heal and divine while in states of spiritual possession
Full time male specialists. High social status. Officiate at public events. Thought to communicate with high gods that ordinary people cannot
Religion serves to answer the big WHY questions. (Natural disasters, birth, death)
Serves to create and reinforce social cohesion. Provides safe community and builds morale
Religion acts as social control by validating one's lot in life
How do the writings of Karl Marx refer to the role of religion as a means of social control?
"Religion is the Opiate of the Masses"
What are revitalization movements and under what circumstances do they happen, and what are they meant to achieve?
In times of rapid social change, traditional religious practices not as effective in maintaining social stability. Aim to either restore old ways or create new social order. Usually associated with charismatic leader
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Anthropology Exam 1
lecture 13 anthropology
Religion Exam 1 Vocab
Lecture 14 anthropology
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