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cells, fibers, and ground substance

components of bone

osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts

four types of bone cells

stem cells found in the endosteum, periosteum, and central canals

osteogenic cells

embryonic mesenchymal cells

osteogenic cells arise from...


How often do osteogenic cells multiply?


What do osteogenic cells produce?

bone-forming cells that are nonmitotic


periosteum and endosteum

Osteoblasts form a single layer of cells under ---- and ----.


Osteoblasts synthesize the soft organic matter of the -------.


The soft organic matter of the matrix ---- by mineral deposition.


Stress and fractures stimulate osteoblasts to multiply ------.

reinforce and rebuild

Osteocytes ---- and ---- bone.

hormone secreted by osteoblasts, which stimulates insulin secretion by the pancreas, increases insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and limits growth of adipose tissue


former osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix they have deposited


tiny cavities where osteocytes reside


little channels that connect lacunae


reabsorb; deposit

Some osteocytes --- bone matrix while others --- it

bone density; calcium; phosphate ions

Osteocytes contribute to homeostatic mechanism of ---- and ---- and ----

Produce biochemical signals that regulate bone remodeling

What do osteocytes do when stressed?

bone-dissolving cells found on the bone surface


They develop from bone marrow stem cells that give rise to blood cells

How are osteoclasts formed?

unusually large

How big are osteoclasts?

3 or 4, but might have up to 50

How many nuclei do osteoclasts usually have?


What is the texture of the osteoclast on the side facing the bone surface?

increases surface area and resorption efficiency

What is the purpose of an osteoclast's "ruffled border"?

pits on surface of bone where osteoclasts reside

resorption bays


Osteoclasts are bone-...


Osteoblasts are bone-...

results of osteoclasts and osteoblasts working together

bone remodeling


What kind of cells are bone-dissolving?


What kind of cells are bone-depositing?


Matrix of osseous tissue is ---- organic matter by weight


Matrix of osseous tissue is ---- inorganic matter by weight

osteoblasts, collagen, proteins, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, and proteoglycans

What constitutes the organic matter of osseous tissue?

mostly hydroxyapatite, but also calcium carbonate and other minerals

What constitutes the inorganic matter of osseous tissue?

collagen; hydroxyapatite

In the polymer-ceramic analogy, --- is the polymer and --- is the ceramic


What portion of bone gives it some degree of flexibility?

soft bones due to deficiency of calcium salts


brittle bone disease, due to lack of protein and collagen

osteogenesis imperfecta

the basic structural unit of compact bone


transverse or diagonal passages along the length of the osteon

perforating canals

skeleton receives about half a liter of blood per minute

blood flow

openings on the surface of bone tissue that allow blood vessels and nerves to enter the bone

nutrient foramina

innermost osteocytes near central canal

Which bone cells receive nutrients first?

inner and outer boundaries of dense bone

circumferential lamellae

parallel to bone surface

positioning of circumferential lamellae

remains of old osteons that broke down as bone grew and remodeled itself

interstitial lamellae

spicules, trabeculae, and spaces filled with red bone marrow

What does spongy bone consist of?

slivers of bone


thin plates of bone


yes, but only a few

Does spongy bone have osteons?

all osteocytes of spongy bone are close to bone marrow

Why doesn't spongy bone need central canals?

along bone's lines of stress

Where do trabeculae develop?

soft tissue that occupies marrow cavity of long bone and small spaces among trabeculae in spongy bone

bone marrow

myeloid tissue; in nearly every bone in a child

red marrow

organ that produces blood cells

hemopoietic tissue

axial skeleton

In adults, where is red marrow found?

found in adults; fatty; no longer produces blood

yellow marrow

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