51 terms

(09/10/12) Chapter 17 Blood

Blood Components, Cell types, Formed elements
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Blood Composition
Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, Platelets
Erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells (RBC). Transport O2 and CO2 on hemoglobin, life span 100-120 days
Leukocytes
White Blood Cells (WBC)
Platelets
cell fragments of megakaryocytes, blue staining outer region with purple granules. temporarily helps seal breaks in blood vessels
Granulocyte
White blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules; neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil.
Neutrophil
Most numerous WBCs, Phagyotize bacteria, give cytoplasm lilac color
Eosinophil
Red to Crimson, bilobed nuclei, digest parasitic worms that are too large to phagocytize
Basophil
Stain dark purple, contain histamine
Agranulocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes, spherical kidney-shaped nuclei- mount immune response by direct cell attack
Lymphocytes
dark-purple, circular nuclei, T and B cells, mostly lymphoid tissue, few circulate in blood
Monocytes
Largest leukocytes, pale-blue cytoplasm, u-shaped nuclei, become macrophages
Hematopoiesis
blood cell formation, occurs in axial skeleton
Hemocytoblasts
Hematopoietic stem cells, give rise to all formed elements
Erythropoiesis
red blood cell production
Reticulocytes
become mature erythrocytes
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow.
Anemia
Blood has abnormally low oxygen carrying capacity
Hemorrhagic Anemia
Acute or chronic loss of blood
Hemolytic Anemia
RBCs rupture prematurely
Aplasmic Anemia
destruction or inhibition of red bone marrow
Iron-deficiant Anemia
inadequate intake of iron-containing foods
Pernicious Anemia
lack of Intrinsic factor needed for absorption of B12
Thalassemias
absent or faulty globin chain
Sickle-cell Anemia
defective gene codes for abnormal hemaglobin, RBCs become sickle shaped in low oxygen situations
Polycythemia
excess of RBCs that increase blood viscosity
Hemostasis
fast series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding
Functions of Blood
Distribute oxygen and nutrients, regulate body temperature, and protect against blood loss and infection
Plasma
liquid portion of blood made up of water, dissolved salts, proteins, and other substances
Hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body
Hematocrit
a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
Blood Typing
presence of A and/or B protiens on RBC
A person with A type blood can donate to...
A and AB blood types
A person with A type blood can recieve from...
A and O blood types
A person with B type blood can donate to...
B and AB blood types
A person with B type blood can recieve from...
B and O blood types
A person with AB type blood can donate to...
AB blood type
A person with AB type blood can recieve from...
A, B, "AB" and O blood types
A person with O type blood can donate to...
A, B, AB, and O blood types (universal)
A person with O type blood can recieve from...
O blood types
Type A blood antigens are
"A" blood types
Type A blood antibodies are
B blood types
Type B antigens are
B blood types
Type B antibodies are
"A" blood types
Type AB antigens are
AB blood types
Type AB antibodies are
no blood types
Type O antigens are
no blood types
Type O antibodies are
"AB" blood types
Type Rh positive antibodies are
no blood types
Type Rh positive antigens are
Rh blood types
Type Rh negative antigens are
no blood types
Type Rh negative antibodies are
unknown