573 terms

APWH Final Terms

Large scale crops and animal husbandry
Having to do with farming
A related group of people within a clan
Someone who is not civilized
A system with a hierarchy, lots of rules and specialization
A group that is culturally and technologically developed
Taming animals or plants
System of exchanging things or money for things
Searching for something
A set of levels with one higher than the other
Hunting for game and gathering plant products
Moving water for fertilization of crops or to stop floods
Believing in one god
New stone
Moving from place to place with no real home (opposite of sedentary)
Shepherds who follow herds
Old Stone
"love of wisdom", searching for understanding of reality
Believing in more than one god
Not moving (opposite of nomadic)
The minimum one needs to live
A government ruled by a religion
The way things have been done in the past
Becoming more based on cities
Code of Hammurabi
A system of laws from Babylon. The first written law code known. Eye for an eye.
Wedge shaped writing style in Sumer. The first written language known.
Iron Age
Time when Iron was used to make weapons. Around 1000BCE to 500CE in different places
Jewish Diaspora
Forced migrations of Jews. First by Assyrians, then by the Romans
Shang Dynasty
First Chinese dynasty
Cultural diffusion
People spread their cultures to new areas through this process.
The study of population.
Marker events
Events that have changed the course of history.
Permanent moves to new locations that occur on local, regional, and global levels.
The process of "chunking" world history into different time periods.
Push and pull factors
Respectively, something that encourages people to move from the region that they live in, and something that attracts them to a new region.
The preference for walking on two limbs rather than four.
Primary sources
Original evidence from the time period.
Paleolithic Age
Old Stone Age.
Agriculture in which only hand tools are used to cultivate crops.
Domestication and keeping of animals.
Independent invention
No cultural diffusion involved to discover a key tool or element.
More crops than the farmer needed to feed his own family.
The belief in multiple gods.
Division of labor
Splitting up labor between peoples in order to get all the work done that needed to be done.
The idea that those most talented in one particular area would do that work for the whole village.
Invaders of early India from the northwest, spoke Indo-European languages.
Areas in rivers where the water was too swift and rocky to allow boats to pass.
Early civilization in South America, not on a river valley.
A city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state.
Generation of reliable surpluses, highly specialized occupations, clear social class distinctions, growth of cities, complex and formal governments, long-distance trade, organized writing system- all these are important characteristics of ____________.
Religion developed in early China, touted the importance of civic virtue.
Language similar to those spoken in southern India.
Family based kingdom.
Epic of Gilgamesh
Story that dates back to the 7th millennium, about a character who went on an epic journey in pursuit, which he did not find.
Fertile Crescent
Wide swath of land from Mesopotamia to Egypt known for its abundance.
Akkadian king, led Babylonians to conquer Mesopotamia, famous for Code of Law.
One of two major cities in the Indus Valley civilization.
Female pharaoh, wore a fake beard, referred to herself with the male pronoun. (Egypt)
The sky god, hawk head, man body. (Egypt)
Labor systems
Coordinated efforts to get work done.
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese belief that Heaven granted emperors the right to rule over China based on their ability to govern well and fairly.
Family line traced through the mothers.
"land between the rivers", earliest civilization, between Tigris and Euphrates.
One of the major cities of the Indus Valley civilization.
First advanced civilization in Mexico, Tenochtitlan.
Oracle bones
Specially prepared bones or turtle shells, each inscribed with a question. (China)
Paper like material used by the Egyptians.
Society dominated and run by men.
God-kings of Egypt.
Pictures representing animals, people, and objects.
Rosetta Stone
Tablet with a relatively long script in three languages: formal hieroglyphics, an informal Egyptian writing, and Greek.
Relating to the peoples who speak the ______ languages, especially Hebrew and Arabic.
Individuals who claimed the ability to contact the ancestors.
Shang dynasty
Dynasty following the Xia, conquerors from the north. (China)
Social mobility
The ability of individuals to change social status.
Form of government where the religious leaders are in charge.
Payment usually in the form of produce.
Large multi story pyramids constructed by bricks and approached by ramps and stairs.
A calculator that performs arithmetic functions by manually sliding counters on rods
(750 C.E.) The Sunni dynasty that overthrew the Umayyads as caliphs
Abu Bakr
(632-634 C.E.) The first caliph; one of Muhammad's earliest followers and closest friends
The fourth caliph or successor of Muhammad. He was also the Prophet's cousin. He is revered by Shi'a Muslims as the rightful first caliph
Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
an instrument that was used to determine the altitude of objects (like the sun) in the sky. It was first used around 200 BC by astronomers in Greece. The astrolabe was replaced by the sextant
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; defeated kingdom of Kush around 300 B.C.E. and succeeded by Ethiopia. Received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphone
military government established by the Minamoto, a powerful Japanese clan in 1185
term used to describe 400 diff enthnic groups in Africa, Cameroon to south Africa, which were untied by a common language (Bantu languages)
Bubonic plague aka Black Death
A highly contagious disease, that was fatal and otherwise known as the disease spread in Asia and Europe in 1347-1351 by the Chinese and Mongols. Also known as the Black Plague that wiped out approximately 25 million people in Europe, or 25% of it's popul
Japanese warrior code of conduct, similar to the chivalry system in Europe
Byzantine Empire
Eastern Half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; capital at Constantinople
Political, religious and militaristic leader of Islam
Political and religious successors to Muhammad
writing art form
a small, highly maneuverable, three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century
Carolingian Dynasty
(8-10th century) Royal house of franks that succeeded the Merovingian dynasty; most prominent member was Charlemagne
Social status or position conferred by a system based on class in India
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor; conqueror of the Lombards and Saxons (742-814)
Charles Martel
Charles the "Hammer"; led the the Battle of Tours and saved Europe from the Islamic expansion. (732 C.E.)
Chichen Itza
Originally a Mayan city; conquered by the Toltecs (1000 C.E)
known as floating gardens, small, rectangle-shapes area of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico
Code of Chivalry
The collective term for the social codes of knighthood that originated in France in the Middle Ages. It was based on brave, courteous and honourable behaviour - what came to be known as 'gentlemanly conduct.'
Person who generally likes to uphold current conditions and oppose changes; religious movement whose position lies between the Orthodox and Reform
The Catholic Reformation or the Counter-Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism
series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims (temporarily succeeded in capturing Jersalem and establishing Christian kingdoms)
capital city of the Incan Empire
male monarch/emperor of Russia
warlord rulers of 300 small kingdoms following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate
a system of government where a single authority rules with absolute power
a common structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere
Dome of the Rock
Islamic shrine in Jerusalem; believed to be the site where Muhammed ascended to Heaven
a family/group that maintains power for several generations
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Queen of France as the wife of Louis VII; married Henry II that marriage was annulled and became Queen of England during 1152-1204
banishment from certain religion & Church
marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World
system where lords provided protection/aid to serfs in return for labor
Five pillars of Islam
obligatory religious duties of all Muslims: confession of faith, prayer (5 times a day facing Mecca), fasting during Ramadan, zakat (tax for charity), and the hajj (pilgrimage)
footbinding as metaphor
The societal restrictions imposed upon women as families became wealthier, women status lowered
Gathering food, usually nuts, berries, roots, etc
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquerer who defeated the Incan Empire of Peru from 1535-1540
a group of Germanic tribes in the early Christian era; spread from the Rhine into the Roman Empire
Gempei Wars
five year war fought between two of Japan's powerful families, the Taira and the Minamoto
Golden Horde
one of four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan's death; territory covered much of present south-central Russia
Gothic architecture
A style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by slender vertical piers and counterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed arches
Greek Orthodox Church
The state church of Greece, an autonomous part of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Western European trade associations, grew strongly in the 12th and 13th centuries to protect and promote trade groups
Traditions of the prophet Mohammad that played a critical role in Islamic law and rituals; recorded by women
Hagia Sophia
It is a 6th century masterpiece of Byzantine architecture in Istanbul; built as a Christian church by Justinian, converted to a mosque in 1453, and made into a museum in the middle of the 20th century
Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca
Hanseatic League
organization of cities in N. Germany/Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance
living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household
any opinions/doctrines at variance with the established or orthodox position; beliefs that reject the orthodox tenets of a religion
Hernan Cortes
Spanish explorer who defeated the Aztec Empire and brought most of Mexico under Spanish control
Mohammad's flight from Mecca to Medina
Hillside terracing
method growing rice in bulk
Holy Roman Empire
a continuation of the Roman Empire in central-western Europe (at least, loosely organized/modeled on it)
focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular to the study of ancient languages
Hundred Years' War
(1337 - 1453) conflict between England and France -fought over lands England possessed in France (issue of feudal rights vs. emerging claims of national states)
Ibn Battuta
Arab traveler/trader who commented on African traveling security, cities
iconoclastic controversy
religious controversy with the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons
Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures. Term also used for leader of empire
An investigation; A tribunal formerly held in the Roman Catholic Church and directed at the suppression of heresy
Major world religion originating in 610 CE in the Arabian peninsula; literally meaning submission; based o prophecy of Muhammad
Ivan the Terrible
confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars(aristocrats); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture
is an Arabic word meaning " striving in the way of God", but it is often translated as "holy war". Refer to an armed struggle fought in the defense of Islam to please Allah
Joan of Arc
A French military leader of the fifteenth century, a national heroine who at the age of seventeen took up arms to establish the rightful king on the French throne. She claimed to have heard God speak to her in voices. These claims eventually led to her tr
Eastern Roman emperor 527-565 CE; tried to restore unity of old Roman Empire; issued most famous compilation of Roman law
Justinian code
Compilation of Roman law
Islamic shrine in Mecca; focus of annual truce among Bedouin tribes
a legendary typhoon said to have saved Japan from a Mongol invasion fleet in 1281. In Japanese, the word "kamikaze" is used only for this typhoon
Mongol ruler
King Clovis
Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity C. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom
formal recognition of the Chinese emperor's authority, where representatives from tribute states would present gifts and engage in a formal bowing ceremony
Kublai Khan
Grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271
An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile C 100 BCE; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries
lateen sail
a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. Adopted in the Late Middle Ages, and Europeans were able to sail out of the Mediterranean
In Christian theology, legalism is belief, stated or supposedly implied, that law, not faith, is the pre-eminent principle of redemption
Magna Carta
Nobles fed up with King John made him sign Great Charter (Magna Carta) that made sure king got approval of aristocracy before imposing taxes, etc, limited king's power
Country of western Africa; During the Middle Ages, Mali formed a huge territorial empire, noted as a center of Islamic study and as a trade route for gold. Its center was Timbuktu
Mansa Musa
African prince from Mali who gave out so much gold during a pilgrimage it devalued
indigenous people of New Zealand
Marco Polo
A Venetian trader that went and learned about China under Kublai Khan
People occupying the Eastern third of Mesoamerica, particularly the Yucatan Peninsula
Religious Center of Islam, where Muslims pray towards, controlled by Umayyad
Great trading center where Muhammad fed to and solved their civil war
Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European disco
a big city with a large population
Middle Ages
Time period between the postclassical era and the renaissance. Consists of Dark Ages and the High Middle Ages, in which the latter saw an improvement in trade, economy, and lives of peasants.
Middle Kingdom
What China called itself. Idea of ethnocentrism by the Chinese
Succeeded Mongol Yuan in 1360 lasted till 1644, characterized by great trade expeditions that were withdrawn
People of the Mississippi plains
The prophet of Islam: born in 570 in clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca
moldboard plow
plow invented during the Middle Ages to improve farming effeciency
Central asian nomadic people; spread all over asia and Europe spreading their empire while pillaging
winds from the southwest or south that brings heavy rainfall to southern Asia in the summer - method by which Arab merchants travelled
emperor of the Aztecs who saw his empire defeated by the Spanish
The Medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb. They captured Spain in 700s, and were expelled from Spain in 1492
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith
in Mississippi region of N. America, civilizations found that created moundlike temples of dirt
movable type
invented in China in the mid-eleventh century. Individual characters made of fired clay were assembled and glued onto a plate to create a printing block. Introduced in Europe in the 15th century
People who believe and follow the Islamic religion
a response by the Confucians to the dominance of the Daoists and Buddhists, severe Confucianism
from the Greek ortho ('right', 'correct') and doxa ('thought', 'teaching'), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. Each is headed by a bishop; m
Orthodox Christianity
is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions which descend from the Roman Catholic Church
Ottoman Turks.
ethnic subdivision of Turkish ppl, who dominated ruling class of the ottoman empire
Papal States
group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 - 1870
Beginning in England with a House of lords (aristocracy) and House of Commons (rich merchants) governing legislative body
pastoral nomadism
Herding animals while moving from place to place
a man who rules a family, clan or tribe
Agricultural worker that works land they own or rented
People of the Book
(dhimmi) Christians and Jews who shared the Bible with Muslims, could be taxed by Muslims
Greek philosopher; knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed ideal abstract form of government abstract principles
polyphonic music
Music in which two or more melodies sound simultaneously
Pope in Rome had top authority, while regional churches had bishops
power of the purse
the power to raise and spend money
an exclusive right of inheritance belonging to the eldest son
A god of the Toltecs and Aztecs, one of the manifestation of the sun god Tezcatlipoca and represented as a plumed serpent
system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system...could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records
Islamic month of fasting from dawn to sunset
religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the Church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian belief
Cultural and political movement in Western Europe; began in Italy 1400 CE, rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; combined art and literature with more secular views
Roman Catholic Church
The Christian church characterized by an episcopal hierarchy with the pope as its head and belief in seven sacraments and the authority of tradition
scholar gentry
elite, educated bureaucrats who ran the centralized gov't pf China
dominant medieval philosophy approach; base in the schools and universities; use of logic to resolve theological problems
ritual suicide/disembowelment in Japan (hara-kiri); demonstrating courage and restoring family honor
peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle Ages
Islamic Law
Religion of early Japanese culture; devotes worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offers of food and prayer made to gods and nature spirits
Japanese lord who wielded most power while the emperor was controlled
military government in 12th century Japan... established by the Minamoto after the Gempei Wars... retained emperor but real power resided in military government and samurai
Silk Road
number of trade routes from East Asia to Eastern Europe, one of the trade commodities was silk
Chinese dynasty that united the entire country until 1127 and the southern portion until 1279, during which time northern China was controlled by the Juchen tribes
Songhey Empire
successor to Mali empire, fusion of Islam, pagan, took over Niger valley, dominant in area until Muslims with muskets
Spanish Inquisition
In the Middle Ages, a judicial procedure that was used to combat heresy... in Spain, authorized by Sixtus IV in 1478; the pope later tried to limit its powers but was opposed by the Spanish crown...the grand inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada was responsible
mystics within Islam... responsible for expansion of Islam in southeastern Asia
Islamic title, used for rulers of the muslim country
Chinese emperor who overthrew the Hsia dynasty and founded the Shang dynasty
Tao Te Ching
The Way of Changes, a Chinese classic written by Lao Tzu around the 3rd century BC It is the fundamental text of Taoism
tea ceremony
Japanese ceremony with Chinese influences symbolizing tranquility
Port city of Mali; located just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River
a member of a Nahuatl-speaking people of central and southern Mexico whose empire flourished from the 10th century under invasion by the Aztes in the 12th Century
The sacrificing to the gods or the offering and payments to the leaders and/or owners of the land
powerful Muslim family
members of military elite who received land or benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty
vernacular languages
the native language of a particular locality
A culture originating in Scandinavia (now Norway, Denmark and Sweden) around the mid-8th century AD The Vikings were fierce conquerors, brave explorers, and skilled craftspeople; they invaded and settled countries throughout Western Europe
William the Conqueror
Invaded England, was Duke of Normandie, and created a centralized feudal system
woodblock printing
It is a technique for printing used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China sometime between the mid-6th and late 9th centuries
Yamato clan
Gained control of the nation over other rival clans around 400 CE. Established an imperial court similar to that of China in 700 CE
Yuan dynasty
1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty. Period of Kublai Kahn and the Mongols dominance over China
country where Bantu ppl began migrating into, linked to the establishment of trade ties with muslim merchants on Indian ocean (bout 10th century) trading natural resources such as gold, ivory, copper for cloth and glass
Aztec Empire
Major state that developed in what is now Mexico in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; dominated by the seminomadic Mexica, who had migrated into the region from northern Mexico.
Territorial state that emerged by the fifteenth century in the region that is now southern Nigeria; ruled by a warrior king who consolidated his state through widespread conquest. (pron. be-NEEN)
"chosen women"
Among the Incas, girls who were removed from their homes at a young age, trained in Inca ideology, and set to producing corn beer and textiles; they later were given as wives to distinguished men or sent to serve as priestesses.
Columbus, Christopher
Genoese mariner (1451-1506) commissioned by Spain to search for a new trading route to Asia; in 1492 he found America instead.
Constantinople, seizure of (1453)
Constantinople, the capital and almost the only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the army of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror" in 1453, an event that marked the end of Christian Byzantium.
"firestick farming"
A manipulation of their environment by the Paleolithic peoples of Australia that involved controlled burns to clear underbrush.
West Africa's largest pastoral society, whose members gradually adopted Islam and took on a religious leadership role that led to the creation of a number of new states. (pron. FULL-bay)
Gama,Vasco da
Portuguese explorer (ca. 1460-1524) whose 1497-1498 voyage was the first European venture to reach India by circling the tip of South Africa. (pron.VAS-coe dah GAHM-ah)
Hundred Years' War
Major conflict between France and England (1337-1453) over rival claims to territory in France; the two states' need to finance the war helped encourage their administrative development.
People whose lands were east of the Niger River in what is now southern Nigeria in West Africa; they built a complex society that rejected kingship and centralized statehood and relied on other institutions to provide social coherence. (pron. EE-boh)
Inca Empire
The Western Hemisphere's largest imperial state in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries; built by a relatively small community of Quechua-speaking people (the Inca), contained perhaps 10 million subjects.
Iroquois League of Five Nations
Confederation of five Iroquois peoples in what is now New York State; the loose alliance was based on the Great Law of Peace, an agreement to settle disputes peacefully through a council of clan leaders. (pron. IR-oh-kwoy)
Muslim port city that came to prominence on the waterway between Sumatra and Malaya in the fifteenth century C.E.; it was the springboard for the spread of a syncretic form of Islam throughout the region. (pron. mah-LAH-kah)
Seminomadic people of northern Mexico who by 1325 had established themselves on a small island in Lake Texcoco, where they built their capital city, Tenochtitlán; the Mexica were the central architects of the Aztec Empire. (pron. meh-SHE-ca)
Ming dynasty
Chinese dynasty (1368-1644) that succeeded the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols; noted for its return to traditional Chinese ways and restoration of the land after the destructiveness of the Mongols.
Mughal Empire
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by an Islamized Turkic group that invaded India in 1526; the Mughals' rule was noted for their efforts to create partnerships between Hindus and Muslims. (pron. MOO-guhl)
Ottoman Empire
Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa.
Paleolithic persistence
The continuance of gathering and hunting societies in substantial areas of the world despite millennia of agricultural advance.
Professional merchants in the Aztec Empire whose wealth often elevated them to elite status. (pron. poch-TAY-kah)
Renaissance, European
A "rebirth" of classical learning that is most often associated with the cultural blossoming of Italy in the period 1350-1500 and that included not just a rediscovery of Greek learning as well as growing secularism in society.
Safavid Empire
Major Turkic empire of Persia founded in the early sixteenth century, notable for it efforts to convert its populace to Shia Islam. (pron. SAH-fah-vid)
Songhay Empire
Major Islamic state of West Africa that formed in the second half of the fifteenth century. (pron. song-GAH-ee)
The metropolitan capital of the Aztec Empire, with a population of 150,000-200,000 people. (pron. the-noch-TIT-lan)
Great city of West Africa, noted in the fourteenth-sixteenth centuries as a center of Islamic scholarship. (pron. tim-buk-TOO)
Turkic warrior (1336-1405), also known as Tamerlane, whose efforts to restore the Mongol Empire devastated much of Persia, Russia, and India. (pron. tem-EER)
Triple Alliance
1428 agreement between the Mexica and two other nearby city-states that launched the Aztec Empire.
Chinese emperor (r. 1402-1422) during the Ming dynasty who was a key figure in the restoration of China to greatness and who commissioned an enormous fleet to spread awareness of Chinese superiority to much of Asia and eastern Africa. (pron. yoong-LAW)
Zheng He
Great Chinese admiral (1371-1433) who commanded a fleet of more than 300 ships in a series of voyages of contact and exploration that began in 1405. (pron. jung huh)
The most famous emperor of India's Mughal Empire (r. 1556-1605); his policies are noted for their efforts at religious tolerance and inclusion. (pron. AHK-bar)
Mughal emperor (r. 1658-1707) who reversed his predecessors' policies of religious tolerance and attempted to impose Islamic supremacy. (pron. ow-rang-ZEB)
Columbian exchange
The massive transatlantic interaction and exchange between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia that began in the period of European exploration and colonization.
Spanish conquerors of the Native American lands, most notably the Aztec and Inca empires. (pron. kon-KEY-stuh-dor-ays)
Constantinople, 1453
Constantinople, the capital and almost the only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the army of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror" in 1453, an event that marked the end of Christian Byzantium.
Spaniards born in the Americas.
The tribute of boy children that the Ottoman Turks levied from their Christian subjects in the Balkans; the Ottomans raised the boys for service in the civil administration or in the elite Janissary infantry corps. (pron. dev-sheer-MEH)
fixed winds
The prevailing winds of the Atlantic, which blow steadily in the same direction; an understanding of these winds made European exploration and colonization of the Americas possible.
"great dying," the
Term used to describe the devastating demographic impact of European-borne epidemic diseases on the Americas.
Special tax levied on non-Muslims in Islamic states; the Mughal Empire was notable for abolishing the jizya for a time. (pron. JIZ-yah)
An economic theory that argues that governments best serve their states' economic interests by encouraging exports and accumulating bullion.
Literally, "mixed"; a term used to describe the mixed-race population of Spanish colonial societies in the Americas. (pron. mess-TEE-zoh)
Mughal Empire
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by Muslim Turks who invaded India in 1526; their rule was noted for efforts to create partnerships between Hindus and Muslims. (pron. MOO-guhl)
Term commonly used for people of mixed African and European blood.
Ottoman Empire
Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa.
In the Spanish colonies of Latin America, the term used to refer to people who had been born in Spain; they claimed superiority over Spaniards born in the Americas. (pron. pen-in-soo-LAHR-es)
plantation complex
Agricultural system based on African slavery that was used in Brazil, the Caribbean, and the southern colonies of North America.
Qing dynasty
Ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912; the Qing rulers were originally from Manchuria, which had conquered China. (pron. ching)
settler colonies
Colonies in which the colonizing people settled in large numbers, rather than simply spending relatively small numbers to exploit the region; particularly noteworthy in the case of the British colonies in North America.
Russia's great frontier region, a vast territory of what is now central and eastern Russia, most of it unsuited to agriculture but rich in mineral resources and fur-bearing animals.
African diaspora
Name given to the spread of African peoples across the Atlantic via the slave trade.
Banda Islands
Infamous case of the Dutch forcibly taking control of the spice trade; nearly the entire population of these nutmeg-producing islands was killed or enslaved and then replaced with Dutch planters. (pron. BAHN-dah)
West African kingdom (in what is now Nigeria) whose strong kings sharply limited engagement with the slave trade. (pron. be-NEEN)
British/Dutch East India companies
Private trading companies chartered by the governments of England and the Netherlands around 1600; they were given monopolies on Indian Ocean trade, including the right to make war and to rule conquered peoples.
West African kingdom that became strong through its rulers' exploitation of the slave trade. (pron. dah-HOH-mee)
Feudal lords of Japan who ruled with virtual independence thanks to their bands of samurai warriors. (pron. DIME-yoh)
Native American people of northeastern North America who were heavily involved in the fur trade. (pron. HYOOR-ons)
Indian Ocean commercial network
The massive, interconnected web of commerce in premodern times between the lands that bordered on the Indian Ocean (including East Africa, India, and Southeast Asia); the network was badly disrupted by Portuguese intrusion beginning around 1500.
Little Ice Age
A period of cooling temperatures and harsh winters that lasted for much of the early modern era.Magellan, Ferdinand
Capital of the Spanish Philippines and a major multicultural trade city that already had a population of more than 40,000 by 1600.
Middle Passage
Name commonly given to the journey across the Atlantic undertaken by African slaves being shipped to the Americas.
piece of eight
Standard Spanish coin that became a medium of exchange in North America, Europe, India, Russia, and West Africa as well as in the Spanish Empire; so called because it was worth 8 reales.
City that developed high in the Andes (in present-day Bolivia) at the site of the world's largest silver mine and that became the largest city in the Americas, with a population of some 160,000 in the 1570s. (pron. poh-toh-SEE)
The warrior elite of medieval Japan. (pron. SAH-moo-rie)
In Japan, a supreme military commander. (pron. SHOW-gun)
"silver drain"
Term used to describe the siphoning of money from Europe to pay for the luxury products of the East, eventually, the bulk of the world's silver supply made its way to China.
"soft gold"
Nickname used in the early modern period for animal furs, highly valued for their warmth and as symbols of elite status; in several regions, the fur trade generated massive wealth for those engaged in it.
Spanish Philippines
An archipelago of Pacific islands colonized by Spain in a relatively bloodless process that extended for the century or so after 1565, a process accompanied by a major effort at evangelization.
Tokugawa shogunate
Military rulers of Japan who successfully unified Japan politically by the early seventeenth century and established a "closed door" policy toward European encroachments. (pron. toekoo- GOW-ah SHOW-gun-at)
trading post empire
Form of imperial dominance based on control of trade rather than on control of subject peoples.
Hindu devotional movement that flourished in the early modern era, emphasizing music, dance, poetry, and rituals as means by which to achieve direct union with the divine. (pron. BAHK-tee)
Catholic Counter-Reformation
An internal reform of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century; Catholic leaders clarified doctrine, corrected abuses and corruption, and put a new emphasis on education and accountability.
Condorcet and the idea of progress
The Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794) was a French philosopher and political scientist who argued that human affairs were moving into an era of near-infinite improvability, with slavery, racism, tyranny.
Copernicus, Nicolaus
Polish mathematician and astronomer (1473-1543) who was the first to argue for the existence of a heliocentric cosmos.
Council of Trent
The main instrument of the Catholic Counter-Reformation (1545-1563), at which the Catholic Church clarified doctrine and corrected abuses.
Darwin, Charles
Highly influential English biologist (1809-1882) whose theory of natural selection continues to be seen by many as a threat to revealed religious truth.
Belief in a divine being who created the cosmos but who does not intervene directly in human affairs.
Edict of Nantes
1598 edict issued by French king Henry IV that granted considerable religious toleration to French Protestants and ended the French Wars of Religion. (pron. nahnt)
European Enlightenment
European intellectual movement of the eighteenth century that applied the lessons of the Scientific Revolution to human affairs and was noted for its commitment to open-mindedness and inquiry and the belief that knowledge could transform human society.
Freud, Sigmund
Austrian doctor and the father of modern psychoanalysis (1856-1939); his theories about the operation of the human mind and emotions remain influential today.
Galilei, Galileo
Italian astronomer (1564-1642) who further developed the ideas of Copernicus and whose work was eventually suppressed by the Catholic Church.
Local gods of the Andes. (pron. HWA-kaws)
The Protestant minority in France. (pron. HUGH-ghe-noes)
Jesuits in China
Series of Jesuit missionaries in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who, inspired by the work of Matteo Ricci, made extraordinary efforts to understand and become a part of Chinese culture in their efforts to convert the Chinese elite,
Literally, "research based on evidence"; Chinese intellectual movement whose practitioners emphasized the importance of evidence and analysis, applied especially to historical documents. (pron. kow-jung)
Luther, Martin
German priest and theologian (1483-1546) who inaugurated the Protestant Reformation movement in Europe.
Marx, Karl
German philosopher (1818-1883) whose view of human history as a class struggle formed the basis of socialism.
One of India's most beloved bhakti poets (1498-1547), she helped break down the barriers of caste and tradition. (pron. MIR-ah-bye)
Nanak, Guru
The founder of Sikhism (1469-1539). (pron. NAH-nahk)
Newton, Isaac
English natural scientist (1643-1727) whose formulation of the laws of motion and mechanics is regarded as the culmination of the Scientific Revolution.
Ninety-five Theses
List of ninety-five debating points about the abuses of the Church, posted by Martin Luther on the door of a church in Wittenberg in 1517; the Church's strong reaction eventually drove Luther to separate from Catholic Christianity.
Protestant Reformation
Massive schism within Christianity that had its formal beginning in 1517 with the German priest Martin Luther; the movement was radically innovative in its challenge to Church authority and its endorsement of salvation "by faith alone."
Ricci, Matteo
The most famous Jesuit missionary in China in the early modern period; active in China from 1582 to 1610. (pron. maht-TAY-oh REE-chee)
Scientific Revolution
Great European intellectual and cultural transformation that was based on the principles of the scientific method.
Religious tradition of northern India founded by Guru Nanak ca. 1500; combines elements of Hinduism and Islam and proclaims the brotherhood of all humans and the equality of men and women. (pron. SEEK-ism)
Society of Jesus
Also called "Jesuits," this Catholic religious society was founded to encourage the renewal of Catholicism through education and preaching; it soon became a leading Catholic missionary order beyond the borders of Europe.
Taki Onqoy
Literally, "dancing sickness"; a religious revival movement in central Peru in the 1560s whose members preached the imminent destruction of Christianity and of the Europeans in favor of a renewed Andean golden age. (pron. TAH-kee OHN-koy)
Thirty Years' War
Highly destructive war (1618-1648) that eventually included most of Europe; fought for the most part between Protestants and Catholics, the conflict ended with the Peace of Westphalia (1648).
Pen name of the French philosopher François-Marie Arouet (1694-1778), whose work is often taken as a model of Enlightenment questioning of traditional values and attitudes; noted for his deism and his criticism of traditional religion. (pron. vol-TARE)
Wahhabi Islam
Major Islamic movement led by the Muslim theologian Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792) that advocated an austere lifestyle and strict adherence to the sharia (Islamic law). (pron. wah-HAB-ee)
Wang Yangmin
Prominent Chinese philosopher (1472-1529) who argued that it was possible to achieve a virtuous life by introspection, without the extensive education of traditional Confucianism. (pron. wahng yahng-min)
What is absolutism?
The monarchy controls everything
What economic theory leaves "every man for himself?"
What is the root word of imperialism?
When did western hemisphere free itself from European control?
By early 1800s
What is ethnocentrism?
The belief that your culture, race, religon, and government is the best
What is pride in one's country instead of a specific leader?
What group of people applied the theory of natural selection to sociology?
Social Darwinists
What is the "White man's burden?"
Europeans have the moral obligation to teach others hows to be civilized
Why was China called the Middle Kingdom?
They believed they were at the center of the world
What are new technologies that were developed in the Industrial Revolution ?
Telegraph, telephone, radio, national postal system, steamship, railroad, trains
What is a big farm that only produceds one crop?
A plantation system
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
President Monroe said that Europeans could NOT intervene with countries in the Western Hemisphere
What made Egypt a significant commerical and political power?
The Suez Canal
England gets opium from India, and sells it to:
The opium lets what flow out of China?
What is Extraterritorality?
A crime is committed in another country by a visitor. The foreign country can not punish the visitor; the home country punishes the person.
What changed due to the Industrial Revolution?
People moved to cities.
What improved farming?
The second agricultural revolution 18th century. (Use of modern fertilizer and steam equipment)
Who is the father of capitalism?
Adam Smith
What was Adam Smith's philosophy?
The government should NOT interfere with the economy.
Adam Smith's book about capitalism was called:
Wealth of Nations
In the second industrial revolution, electricity overtakes steam and coal as:
Power source
What is Marx's name for the working class?
What class was born because of the Industrial Revolution?
The working class
What was Marx's name for the middle class?
What began to be determined more by wealth than family position in unit 5?
Social Status
Marxism is the same as:
The lightbulb created what?
Work shifts. Now people could work into the night.
Karl Marx wrote what?
Communist Manifesto
Charles Dickens wrote of what?
Social ills of industrialization
What did the Ludites do?
Destroyed factory equipment and protested working conditions/wages
What was the first industrial war?
The United States Civil War
What is monoculture?
One crop is grown
What happened in the "Banana Republic?"
US took over islands and forced them to grow bananas. They grew bananas and shiped them to America for cheap prices.
Why didn't Russian have a real culture?
Mongol rule
What is the Meiji Restoration?
It turns on the power switch for Industrialization in Japann.
Who brought huge boats to Japan and forced them to trade?
Commodore Perry
Who are the zaibatsu?
Super rich families that start businesses in Japan. There were four big rich families that formed companies.
What doubled in Britian in 1700s?
Population almost doubled 5 million to 9 million
What are the Enclosure Acts?
Public lands closed off, so people moved to cities
What made textile revolution possible?
Cottin gin
What is urbanization?
The shift of people from countryside to city
What is the Scientific Revolution?
Discovering, learning, evaluating, understanding the natural world
What is the Industrial Revolution?
Appling that understanding for economic ends
What does urbanization cause?
Rise of nationalism, colonization, independence movements and revolutions, social unrest,
What is the Enlightenment?
Thinking rationally
What is anti-Semitism?
Hate Jews
What happened in Ireland?
Famine because of a blight on potatoes
What pushed the migration of people to North/South America from Europe in unit 5?
Famine in Ireland; Anti-Semitism-Russia; Religous toleration; Poverty; Joblessness
What are pogroms?
The government allows people to kill Jews
Natural Resources quote about imperialism:
In 1850, Industrial Revolution is over, what happens?
The working class starts to benefit (People get rights)
Most working women were ___?
Women were paid __ than men?
What new group forms?
Middle class housewives
What era idealized women? It showed them how to be prim and proper and spend all of their husbands' money on cute things.
Victorian Age
What is social mobility?
The ability to move from one class to the next
Husband= ___ Wife= _____ in most of unit 5.
Husband-wage earner Wife-Homemaker
Old money from family; What is new money?
New money- you make it
The lower class is worknig alongside The managers. They can now see the unfairness. They saw elite gain wealth at their expense. This leads to __________ and/or ______________.
labor unions and or communism
What is a safe haven for former slaves?
Sierra Leone- British colony
Liberia- colonization scheme for freed slaves from U.S.
What is the Emancipation of 1861?
The Russian serfs are freed. They are no longer bound to land.
Emacipation of serfs was similar to what?
Sharecropping in US. The former serfs now had to pay for land
What stimulated the awareness of unequal treatment of women?
Enlightenment theories (reason) and active role of women in American and French revolutions
What is the cult of domesticity?
Stressing women's place in the home- Dominated Western culture. Women felt like they were controlled by being in the home, like a cult.
What occupations were open to women?
Child care, teaching, domestic household work, nursing
Domestic means
What is suffrage?
Voting rights
What is temperance?
Stop drinking
What gave women suffrage?
World War I
What is autocracy?
Self rule= one person rules= dictator
What is a common theme in revolutions?
Frustration with economic exploitation ("No taxation without representation")
What is the same thing as the Seven Years War?
French and Indian War
What was the Common Sense pamphlet about?
US needs to break free from England
France helped US do what?
Defeat Britian
Who were the Three Estates in France?
1st Estate- Clergy; 2nd Estate- Nobles 2%; 3rd Estate- Everybody else 97%
What was the official start of the French Revolution?
Storming the Bastille
The Declaration of the Rights of Man was what?
A copycat of the American Bill of Rights
What did the Declaration of the Rights of man say?
Freedom of the press, freedom of religon, increased voting rights, freedom, equality, rule of law
What is the rule of law?
No one is above the law
Constitutional Monarchy was similar to what?
The Mandate of Heaven, but in a legal way
What is a Republic?
People vote for other people who then decide
Who took over France after Robespierre was beheaded?
What is a Coup de tat?
Quick overthrow of the government
What did the Napoleonic Codes do?
Equality of Frenchmen-All men are citizens
Who is the first emperor of France?
In russia, what happens with Napoleon?
Russia lured Napoleon into Moscow, but then burned their own city. Napoleon had no supplies for troops and retreated back to France.
Napoleon took French army ___ after he was exiled and returned to France?
Waterloo, Belgium
The French Revolution accomplished what?
It did away with absolute monarchy; Governments had to be more attentive to peoples' needs; creates spirit of nationalism; spread the idea or revolution outside France
What is Liberalism?
You want as many rights as possible
Nationalism unites what two countries?
Italy and Germany BECOME COUNTRIES
What catastrophe happened in Ireland?
Irish potato famine
What colony in the Americas does France have?
America is to Britain, as ___ is to France.
Where was the first successful slave revolt?
Who sold the Louisisana Territory to US?
What brought about major change in global power?
The Louisiana Territory was sold to US. It MADE US A WORLD SUPERPOWER!
El Grito de Dolores is what?
"Cry from Delores!" a declaration by Mexican priest, Father Hidalgo saying the the Spanish had to go!
Delores is what?
A city where Mexicans "cried for peace."
Mexican Independence Day is when what happened?
El Grito de Dolores (Call to arms by priest)
Miguel Hildago was who?
Creole priest who started Mexican Revolution 1
Who picked up where Hildago left off?
Jose Morelos
What happened in 1815?
Jose Morelos was killed
Sino means what?
What happened during the "Hundred Days of Reform" in China?
Let all people vote, all kids could got to school free, divided rich peoples' land among poor people
What was the Sino-Japanese War in 1895 over?
China VS. Japan for Korea
Empress Cixi (Tehsee) of China was who?
Concubine that "ruled" for nephew until he was an adult
What was Empress Cixi (Tehsee) of China's nick name?
Dragon Lady
Empress Cixi (Tehsee) of China ruled how?
Oppressive rule; She opposed ALL reform. Pro-Western was treason
Empress Cixi (Tehsee) of China arrested who?
Her nephew and killed his reformers
Empress Cixi (Tehsee) of China's nephew did what?
Hundred Days of Reform
Chinese Revolution of 1911 was a result of what?
It was a backlash against Cixi's Conservatism
Chinese Revolution did what?
Declaration of a republic
Unification of China began under who?
Sun Yat-sen
Who is the father of modern China?
Sun Yat-sen (Nationalist Party)
Who was Simon Bolivar?
Venezuelan leader
Bolivar did what?
He was enlightened and educated; he traveled to Europe and United States
What results from Bolivar's win?
GRAN COLOMBIA- Columbia, Ecuador, and Venezuela
Who was the leader in Argentina?
Jose de San Martin
Napoleon invaded Portugal, and what happened?
Portuguses king- John VI flees to Brazil
John VI leaves his son Pedro where?
In Brazil to rule
Pedro does what?
Declares independece for Brazil and makes himself emperor
What advantage did Brazil have when compared to other Latin American countries?
Effects of Latin American independece movements:
Europe kicked out of Latin American
Who had power in Russia?
Czars had absolute power
1860s- Alexander I did what?
Emancipation Edict- abolished serfdom
In Russia, what happened to freed serfs?
They were given small plots of land, and had to give huge payments to the government. It was hard to improve situation
Some arts began to flourish in Russia after:
Serfs freed
What was Russification?
All Russians HAD TO learn Russian language and convert to Orthodox Christianity
Anyone who did not convert to Orthodox Christianity in Russia, was:
Persecuted, especially Jews
Moderates in Russia march on czar's palace peacefully and ask for reform. What happens?
Nicholas II sends his troops against protesters- Bloody Sunday- 1905
The educated Indians ___
Wanted freedom
What is formed in India?
Indian National Congress
Who was the Italian nationalist who kicked out Spain and united Italy?
Giuseppi Garibaldi
What was Garibaldi's (Italy) army called?
Red Shirts
Where is Prussia located?
Within Germany
Prussia and other kingdoms become:
Germany and Austiran Empire were NOT united since when?
Holy Roman Empire
Who united Germany?
Otto von Bismarck
Who fought the Crimean War?
Russia VS Ottoman Empire
Who wins Crimean War?
Ottomans win with the help of France and England
Women were viewed as what in Japan 1890?
Second class citizens
Japan became what during their industrialization?
What injustice happened in Nagasaki?
Temperatures in a working factory were too hot, and the workers were shot for trying to escape
What is Feminism?
When did women get suffrage?
What replaced agriculture as largest part of economy?
What is a Marxism quote?
Rich people have always taken advantage of the poor people
Utopian socialists say what?
With good planning and regulation- everyone can be happy
Workers would overthrow, which would lead to ___?
Communism (A revolution was necessary)
Who gets what in COMMUNISM?
What caused imperialism:?
Need for raw materials, and markets for goods
United States protected the AMEICAS FROM EUROPEAN THREAT with what?
What is social darwinism?
The people who are most technologically and culturally advanced should coquer other people
What does the sun never sets on the British Empire mean?
Britian had so many colonies that the sun actually never set on the entre british empire.
Who were the sepoys?
Indian Soldiers that were body guards for the British East India Company in India
What was a rumor that made the sepoys furious?
Bullet cartridges were greased with pork and beef fat - both forbidden to Hinus and Muslims
Britain took over India after ___?
Sepoy Mutiny
Britain had a huge influence in what Asian country?
What Asian country remained independent because of their AWESOME kings?
Thailand was a buffer (middle ground) free zone between what?
Between British Burma and French Indochina
Why did USA want Phillipines?
Prevents Japanfrom having a naval base over here; US colony now; moral obligation to help poor yellow brothers
What happened in the Spanish Ameican War of 1898?
Americans and Natives overthrew Spanish; USA annexation of Phillipines
German term meaning "lightning war," used to describe Germany's novel military tactics in World War II, which involved the rapid movement of infantry, tanks, and airpower over large areas.
European Economic Community
also known as the Common Market was an alliance formed by Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in 1957 and dedicated to developing common trade policies and reduced tariffs; it gradually developed into the European Union.
European Union
The final step in a series of arrangements to increase cooperation between European states in the wake of World War II; the EU was formally established in 1994, and twelve of its members adopted a common currency in 2002.
Political ideology marked by its intense nationalism and authoritarianism; its name is derived from the fasces that were the symbol of magistrates in ancient Rome.
Fourteen Points
Plan of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson to establish lasting peace at the end of World War I; although Wilson's views were popular in Europe, his vision largely failed.
Franco-Prussian War
German war with France (1870-1871) that ended with the defeat of France and the unification of Germany into a single state under Prussian rule.
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke
Heir to the Austrian throne whose assassination by a Serbian nationalist on June 28, 1914, was the spark that ignited World War I.
Great Depression
Worldwide economic depression that began in 1929 with the New York stock market crash and continued in many areas until the outbreak of World War II.
Great War
Name originally given to the First World War (1914-1918).
Hitler, Adolf
Leader of the German Nazi Party (1889-1945) and Germany's head of state from 1933 until his death.
Name commonly used for the Nazi genocide of Jews and other "undesirables" in German society; Jews themselves prefer the term Shoah, which means "catastrophe,"
League of Nations
International peacekeeping organization created after World War I; first proposed by U.S. president Woodrow Wilson as part of his Fourteen Points.
Mussolini, Benito
Charismatic leader of the Italian fascist party (1883-1945) who came to power in 1922.
Nanjing, Rape of
The Japanese army's systematic killing, mutilation, and rape of the Chinese civilian population of Nanjing in 1938.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military and political alliance founded in 1949 that committed the United States to the defense of Europe in the event of Soviet aggression.
Nazi Party
Properly known as the National Socialist Democratic Workers' Party, the Nazi party was founded in Germany shortly after World War I and advocated a strongly authoritarian and nationalist regime based on notions of racial superiority.
New Deal
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
total war
War that requires each country involved to mobilize its entire population in the effort to defeat the enemy.
Treaty of Versailles
1919 treaty that officially ended World War I; the immense penalties it placed on Germany are regarded as one of the causes of World War II.
United Nations
International peacekeeping organization and forum for international opinion, established in 1945.
Weimar Republic
The weak government that replaced the German imperial state at the end of World War I; its failure to take strong action against war reparations and the Great Depression provided an opportunity for the Nazi Party's rise to power.
Wilson, Woodrow
President of the United States from 1913 to 1921 who was especially noted for his idealistic approach to the end of World War I, which included advocacy of his Fourteen Points intended to regulate future international dealings and a League of Nations
World War I
The "Great War" (1914-1918), in essence a European civil war with global implications that was marked by massive casualties, the expansion of offensive military technology beyond tactics and means of defense,
World War II in Asia
A struggle essentially to halt Japanese imperial expansion in Asia, fought by the Japanese against primarily Chinese and American foes.
World War II in Europe
A struggle essentially to halt German imperial expansion in Europe, fought by a coalition of allies that included Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States.
The huge industrial enterprises that dominated the Japanese economy in the period leading up to World War II.
Berlin Wall
Wall constructed by East German authorities in 1961 to seal off East Berlin from the West; it was breached on November 9, 1989.
Russian revolutionary party led by Vladimir Lenin and later renamed the Communist Party; the name means "the majority."
Castro, Fidel
Revolutionary leader of Cuba from 1959 to 2008 who gradually turned to Soviet communism and engendered some of the worst crises of the cold war.
Chinese Revolution
Long revolutionary process in the period 1912-1949 that began with the overthrow of the Chinese imperial system and ended with the triumph of the Communist Party under the leadership of Mao Zedong.
cold war
Political and ideological state of near-war between the Western world and the communist world that lasted from 1946 to 1991.
Process of rural reform undertaken by the communist leadership of both the USSR and China in which private property rights were abolished and peasants were forced onto larger and more industrialized farms.
In full, "Communist International"; Soviet organization intended to control the policies and actions of other communist states.
Cuban missile crisis
Major standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba; the confrontation ended in compromise, with the USSR removing its missiles.
Cultural Revolution
a massive campaign launched by Mao Zedong in the mid-1960s to combat the capitalist tendencies that he believed reached into even the highest ranks of the Communist Party; the campaign threw China into chaos.
Deng Xiaoping
Leader of China from 1976 to 1997 whose reforms essentially dismantled the communist elements of the Chinese economy.
Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of "openness," which allowed greater cultural and intellectual freedom and ended most censorship of the media; the result was a burst of awareness of the problems and corruption of the Soviet system.
Gorbachev, Mikhail
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 whose efforts to reform the USSR led to its collapse.
Great Leap Forward
Major Chinese initiative (1958-1960) led by Mao Zedong that was intended to promote small-scale industrialization and increase knowledge of technology; in reality, it caused a major crisis and exacerbated the impact of a devastating famine.
Cultural Revolution
Mao Zedong's great effort in the mid-1960s to weed out capitalist tendencies that he believed had developed in China.
Great Purges
Also called the Terror, the Great Purges of the late 1930s were a massive attempt to cleanse the Soviet Union of supposed "enemies of the people"; nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941
Acronym for the Soviet government agency that administered forced labor camps.
Adopted name of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870-1924), the main leader of Russia's communist revolution and head of the Soviet state from 1917 until his death.
Mao Zedong
Chairman of China's Communist Party and de facto ruler of China from 1949 until his death in 1976.
Bold economic program launched in 1987 by Mikhail Gorbachev with the intention of freeing up Soviet industry and businesses.
Russian Revolution
Massive revolutionary upheaval in 1917 that overthrew the Romanov dynasty in Russia and ended with the seizure of power by communists under the leadership of Lenin.
Name assumed by Joseph Vissarionovich Jugashvili (1878-1953), leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death; the name means "made of steel."
Warsaw Pact
Military alliance of the USSR and the communist states of Eastern Europe during the cold war.
African National Congress
South African political party established in 1912 by elite Africans who sought to win full acceptance in colonial society; it only gradually became a popular movement that came to control the government in 1994.
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal
Founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey (1881-1938); as military commander and leader of the Turkish national movement, he made Turkey into a secular state.
Also known as Afrikaners, the sector of the white population of South Africa that was descended from early Dutch settlers.
Process in which many African and Asian states won their independence from Western colonial rule, in most cases by negotiated settlement with gradual political reforms and a program of investment rather than through military confrontation.
Gandhi, Mohandas K.
(1869-1948) was a political leader and the undoubted spiritual leader of the Indian drive for independence from Great Britain.
Indian National Congress
Organization established in 1885 by Western-educated elite Indians in an effort to win a voice in the governance of India; over time, the INC became a major popular movement that won India's independence from Britain.
Jinnah, Muhammad Ali
Leader of India's All-India Muslim League and first president of the breakaway state of Pakistan (1876-1948).
Mandela, Nelson
South African nationalist (b. 1918) and leader of the African National Congress who was imprisoned for 27 years; he was elected president of South Africa in 1994, four years after he was finally released from prison.
Muslim League
created in 1906, was a response to the Indian National Congress in India's struggle for independence from Britain; the League's leader, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, argued that regions of India with a Muslim majority should form a separate state called Pakistan.
Nehru, Jawaharlal
The first prime minister of independent India (1889-1964).
International organization of fundamentalist Islamic militants, headed by Osama bin Laden.
Major international movement that protests the development of the global economy on the grounds that it makes the rich richer and keeps poor regions in poverty while exploiting their labor and environments;
bin Laden, Osama
The leader of al-Qaeda, a wealthy Saudi Arabian who turned to militant fundamentalism.
Occurring within all the major world religions, fundamentalism is a self-proclaimed return to the "fundamentals" of a religion and is marked by a militant piety and exclusivism.
Term commonly used to refer to the massive growth in international economic transactions from around 1950 to the present.
global warming
A worldwide scientific consensus that the increased burning of fossil fuels and the loss of trees have begun to warm the earth's atmosphere artificially and significantly, causing climate change.
Guevara, Che
an Argentine-born revolutionary (1928-1967) who waged guerrilla war in an effort to remedy Latin America's and Africa's social and economic ills.
Term used by modern militant Islamic groups to denote not just the "struggle" or "striving" that the word originally meant but also the defense of authentic Islam against Western aggression.
Kyoto protocol on global warming
International agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to slow global warming; as of November 2007, 174 countries had subscribed to the agreement, but the United States' refusal to ratify the protocol has caused international tensions.
religious right
The fundamentalist phenomenon as it appeared in U.S. politics in the 1970s.
World Trade Organization
International body representing 149 nations that negotiates the rules for global commerce and is dedicated to the promotion of free trade.