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104 terms

AP Human Geography Unit 1 test

Unit 1: it's nature and perspectives
STUDY
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changing attributes of place
when an area is globalized and its landscape is transformed. (changing the way a landscape appears by modernization or migration to an uninhabited space ex: taking a desert and building a river through it)
Cultural attributes/ cultural landscape
the fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
Density
the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area ( ex. arithmetic density and physiological density)
arithmetic density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Diffusion
the spreading of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
hearth
the region from which innovative ideas originate.
relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
expansion diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
hierarchical diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
absolute direction
the EXACT way or direction to get to something (north,south,east,west)
relative direction
Directions such as left, right, forward, backward, up, and down
concentration/ dispersion
the spread of something over a given area
absolute distance
Exact measurement of the physical space between two places.
relative distance
Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places.
distribution
the arrangement of things across earths surface
environmental determinism
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
absolute location
The position of place of a certian item on the surface of the Earth as expresed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 0° to 90° north or south of the equator, and longitude, 0° to 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian passing through Greenwich, England.
relative location
where a place is located in relation to another place
site location
physical placement of a property and its surrounding vicinity
situation location
the location of a place in relation to other places or larger features
place name
Often referred to as a places toponym (the name given to a place on Earth.) ( the name of which a geographical place is known)
linear pattern
type of arrangement of objects in space that is in a line, such as arrangement of houses along a street
centralized pattern
type of arrangement of objects in space that centralizes around one node or center point
random pattern
a type of dispersion where individuals in a population are spaced in a patternless, unpredictable way
physical attributes
Natural Landscape
possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
formal region
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
functional region
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
vernacular region
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
scale
the relationship between the the portion of earth being studied and earth as a whole (the size of an object on a map compared to the size of the object on earths surface
spatial
pertaining to space on the Earth's surface; sometimes used as a synonym for geographic.
spatial interaction
the movement of people, goods and ideas within and across geographic space
distortion
a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map
Geographic information system
a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data
global positioning system
a navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver
grid
a network of horizontal and vertical lines that provide coordinates for locating places on a map
map
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.
map scale
symbols that help to measure distances on a map
thematic map
A type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area.
statistical map
A special type of map in which the variation in quantity of a factor such as rainfall, population, or crops in a geographic area is indicated; such as a dot map
cartogram map
space is distorted to feature a particular attribute (ignores size/shape)
dot map
maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon such as population
choropleth map
a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
isoline map
Map displaying lines that connect points of equal value; for example, a map showing elevation levels
mental map
your perspective on what the world 9or a certain area looks like)
model
geographers use models to explain patterns, make informed decisions, and predict future behaviors
projection
translating the earth onto a flat map
remote sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
time zones
one of the 24 regions or divisions of the globe approximately coinciding with meridians at successive hours from the observatory at Greenwich, England.
accessibility
The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place.
cartography
the making of maps and charts
clustered
when a group of individuals are close together in one area, gathered in a small, close group; bunched
complementarity
The actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions.
concentration
the spread of something over a given area
conformal maps
Maps that distort area but keep shapes intact.
coordinate system
a standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface.
cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
density
the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
diffusion
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
dispersed
scattered, spread, broken up
distance decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
equal area projection
Map that maintains area but distorts other properties.
equator
imaginary line that runs around the earth halfway between the North and South Poles; used as the starting point to measure degrees of north and south latitude
expansion diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
friction of distance
a measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
globalizing forces
Forces that cause or help globalization.
Hearth
the region from which innovative ideas originate
homogeneous region
regions with distinct characteristics that is common to all parts of that region. Example residential or commercial, war-time homes or brick homes that all look the same. (corn field)
international date line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
intervening opportunities
the idea that one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the closer of the two will get the job, thereby blocking the other from being able to use its supply
large scale
zoomed in maps that allow you to get a closer look at towns and cities
latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
local uniqueness
Unique features of a place
location
position of anything on earth's surface
longitiude
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
map projection
a projection of the globe onto a flat map using a grid of lines of latitude and longitude
mental map
your own interpretation of what the world (or a place) looks like, An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
mercator projection
these maps show true direction and land shapes fairly accurately, but not size or distance. Areas that are located far from the Equator are quite distorted on this type of map. Alaska, for example, appears much larger on this type of map than it does on a globe.
Meridians
an imaginary circle passing through any place on the earth's surface and through the North and South poles. (vertical lines)
parallels
a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
pattern
geographic arrangement of objects in space
Place
a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
prime meridian
The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
region
the system used to transfer locations from earths surface to a flat map
regional studies
An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
remote sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
robinson projection
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each
sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
site
The physical character of a place
situation
The location of a place relative to other places.
small scale
zoomed out map of an area or region/ the world where you can see more land but less detail
space
The physical gap or interval between two objects.
spatial perspective
observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
thematic layers
individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship.
time-space compression
A term associated with the work of david harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity.
tobler's first law of geography
"Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things."
toponyms
the name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
transferability
The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
transnational corporations
companies that participate not only in international trade but also in production, manufacturing, and/or sales operations in several countries