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SGU SVM Nutrition Quiz 1
Wiseman Term 1
Terms in this set (88)
Types of Input
Energy, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals, and EFA's
Types of Losses
Metabolic: Urine, Methane, Heat
Types of Output
Meat, Milk, Eggs
Function of 3 main areas of the intestinal tract
Large fermentation vessel: Microflora, degrade plant fiber, absorb products
Small Intestine: Endogenous enzymes, nutrient absorption
Large Intestine: Further microbial activity, absorb products, resorption of water and minerals (main function for land based animals)
Enzyme produced by salivary gland
Salivary amylase (starch)
Enzyme produced by gastric mucosa
Enzymes produced by Pancreas
Trypsin (protein), Chymotrypsin (protein), Pancreatic Lipase (triglyceride), Pancreatic alpha-amylase (starch), Ribonuclease (RNA), Deoxyribonuclease (DNA)
Enzymes of the intestinal mucosa
Aminopeptidase (peptides), Dipeptidase (dipeptides), Maltase (maltose), Lactase (lactose)
Why don't chickens have teeth?
They weigh alot, therefore have a strong but light beak - gizzard = muscular stomach - grinds food
How does Hind gut fermentation work?
Have a very large large intestine which enables them to digest fiber (ex: rabbit and horse)
Why are cats unable to digest fiber?
Have a very small large intestine
provides massive fermentation vessel (influenced by diet); pH 5.5 - 6.5 (provides homeostasis)
Products of rumen microflora
VFA's (main product), microbial protein, and gasses
What are some negative effects to only feeding cows on pasture grass?
Low mineral intake (ex: calcium)
List some potential pathogens
E.Coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum,
Potential diseases linked to micro-organisms
Diarrhea (E Coli, Crypto, etc); Mastitis (E Coli, etc); Listeriosis (L monocytogenes); "Silage eye" (L monocytogenes?); Botulism (C botulinum);
Crop contaminated w/ soil; mouldy silage fed to animals
Silage contaminated w/ carcass;
What are some clinical signs of Acidosis?
Excessive intake of minerals, urine drinking, regurgitation
What is the treatment for acidosis?
NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate)
What is different about Birds?
some have a crop, Glandular stomach, Muscular stomach
Give an example of a within class interaction
Calcium and phosphorous (both minerals)
Give an example of a between classes interaction
Selenium and Vitamin E (mineral : vitamin) or
Vitamin E and Linoleic acid (vitamin : EFA)
What is NDF?
Neutral detergent fiber (isolates lignin, cellulose, plant cell wall)
What is ADF?
Acid detergent Fiber (isolates lignin and cellulose)
What is Gross Energy (GE)?
Energy released when dietary raw material or complete feed is completely combusted in an atmosphere of oxygen
Simple and quick to determine - but does not take any losses into account
What is Digestible Energy (DE)?
energy available following digestion
DE = GE - Fecal energy
Simple to determine - accounts for major proportion of variable losses - widely w/in diet formulation in pigs
What is Metabolisable Energy (ME)?
ME = GE - (Fecal + urinary + methane energy)
Most appropriate for poultry - digestive losses difficult to separate
What is Net Energy (NE)?
energy available for maintenance and production
NE = GE - (fecal + urinary + methane energy + heat increment)
Best estimate of dietary energy actually available to the animal - but difficult to measure
What problems arise w/ unsaturated fatty acids?
toxic to rumen bacteria, signal cow to cease eating, impair rumen fermentation
What are some benefits to saturated fatty acids?
improves reproductive performance
What are the 3 VFA's?
Acetate, Butyrate, and Propionate
What is a more nutritionally acceptable definition of fiber?
Non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)
What are some problems with fiber?
variable response depending on origin, variability with age (older animals digest fiber than younger)
What are the 2 major categories of Carbohydrates?
Starch and Fibers
What is the general formula for Monosaccharides?
(CH2O)x Ex: Hexose C6H12O6 (glucose)
Consist of 2 carbohydrate monomers ex: Sucrose (glucose - fructose) Maltose (Glucose-Glucose)
What are examples of digestible Polysaccharides?
Starch (polymer of glucose - mainly alpha 1-4 bonds - plants)
Amylopectin (polymer of glucose - mainly alpha 1-4 some alpha 1-6 bonds - "waxy" cereals)
What are some non digestible, but fermentable polysaccharides?
Cellulose (beta 1-6 bonds - main structural component in plants)
Lignin (not a carb! but intimately linked to plant cell wall)
What is Phytic Acid?
A hexose that irreversibly binds phosphorous - supplement w/ phytase
What happens if feed high levels of barley?
avian and young pigs unable to cope w/ beta-glucans
What are examples of Legume alpha galactosides?
Raffinose (sucrose - galactose)
Stachyose (sucrose - galactose - galactose)
Verbascose (sucrose - galactose - galactose - galactose)
What animal lacks alpha amylase?
What will starch overload in cecum encourage?
excessive Bacterial proliferation
What is unique about Lactase?
it is only found in juvenilles during lactation (to breakdown lactose which is mammalian milk sugar) - adult animals intolerant of lactose
What is the major energy yielding component in diets for non-ruminants?
What happens to piglets post weaning?
Enzyme system collapses and unable to digest starch - need to feed processed wheat post weaning to prevent cholic
What happens if starch undigested in small intestine?
Bad: microbial proliferation, diarrhea, dehydration, death
Good: more acidic environment, reduced pathogen colonization
What are proteins made up of?
Chains of 20 amino acids connected by peptide bonds
What are the 4 protein structures?
Primary: sequence of a chain of AA's
Secondary: Sheet or helix formation
Tertiary: Folds back on itself
Quanternary: consist of more than one AA chain
Why is crude protein not a good measure of nutritional quality?
Does not account for variable N content, (N x 6.25), does not consider protein quality
List the essential amino acids
PVT MT HILL
List the conditionally essential amino acids
cannot be synthesized fast enough under certain conditions (ex: high performance)
List the non essential amino acids
What is the plant protein of the best quality?
Soya - well balanced in Threonine and Methlonine + Cysteine
What is performance restricted to?
The level of the FIRST limiting amino acid
Where is protein of no nutritional value?
What are the different processing techniques?
Micronising: Gas burners heat ceramic tiles
Autoclaving: Moist heat under pressure
Extrusion: wet or dry
Jet sploding/expansion: material heated and "explodes" into are of low pressure
What is the definition of a lipid?
not soluble in H2O, but soluble in non-polar organic solvents
usually related to fatty acids
What is a Fatty acid?
long chain of carbon atoms with a terminal methyl group and carboxyl group
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated?
Saturated: Single bonds (C18:0) - solid at room temp
Unsaturated: double bonds present (C18:2) - liquid at room temp
What are the 2 classifications of lipids?
Glycerol (Fats/oils, galactolipids) and non-Glycerol based (waxes, steroids)
What is the definition of a Triglyceride?
3 fatty acids based on 1 glycerol molecule
Why are fats/oils included in animal diets?
have double the energy yielding potential of carbohydrates
What are the Essential fatty acids?
Linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6)
Linolenic acid (C18:3, n-3)
What are the 2 main reasons for essential fatty acids?
Precursors for a # of higher chain fatty acids and key metabolites (ex: prostoglandins)
*involved in maintaining cell membrane integrity
What are the 2 key enzyme systems for fatty acid conversions?
Chain elongation (elongase)
What is the problem w/ long chain EFA's?
unstable - therefore antioxidants should be added early during processing (oxidation cannot be reversed)
What animals are unable to synthesize Vit C?
Humans, bats, and guinea pigs
What is the definition of a nutrient?
Molecule with a precise metabolic function
Which are the fat soluble vitamins?
A; D; E; K
What is the most common cause of blindness in children?
Vit A deficiency:degenerative disease of the cornea
How do Birds and fur bearing animals obtain Vit D?
Preening - obtain D from oily secretions deposited onto fur/feathers and then consumed orally
How is Calcitrol (active form of Vit D) synthesized?
From 7 dehydrocholesterol (produced in skin), bone deformation
What are the functions of Vit E?
in vivo antioxidant, stimulate immune response, stability of meat
What does Vit E interact with?
Selenium (mineral): functions compliment eachother
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids: unstable therefore increase dietary levels of Vit E
How do rodenticides work?
Block action of K1
Which Vitamin is H2O soluble?
What are the 2 main groups of B Vitamins?
Transfer of Molecular groups (Thiamine, Biotin, Folic acid, B12)
Oxido-reduction reactions (Niacin, B2)
What are signs of Thiamine (B1) deficiency?
head "fixed" back over neck and "stargazing"
Why is consuming excessive amounts of liver dangerous to cats?
Vitamin A toxicity (cats unable to regulate vit A) -increased touch sensitivity
Which 3 minerals maintain electrolyte balance?
Na, K, Cl
What is the role of Calcium?
Muscle contraction/relaxation, Neuronal transmission
What is the role of Phosphorus?
Phospholipids, ATP, bone mineralization
What are the symptoms of Milk Fever? What is the treatment?
Difficulty standing, staggering, may fall, head to one side
Give calcium either IV or orally
What are some symptoms of calcium deficiency?
Panting, decrease in blood CO2, rise in blood pH, decrease in blood calcium
Which animal has a specific problem with Fe deficiency?
Neonatal piglets - sow milk has low levels, levels can fall by half in 10 days
Tx: IM injection of Fe
What is the importance of Fe?
involved in Haem protein oxidation and reduction
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