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Chapter 16 A part 2
Terms in this set (13)
is the unique and enduring (long-term) pattern of inner experience and outward behavior, which leads to predictable and consistent reactions across various situations
Personality tends to be consistent and is often described in terms of "traits"
These traits may be inherited, learned, or both
Personality is also flexible, allowing us to learn and adapt to new environments
For those with personality disorders, however, that flexibility is usually missing
In the popular nineteenth-century theory of Franz ___ Joseph Gall (1758-1828) suggested that the brain consists of distinct portions, each responsible for some aspect of personality. Phrenologists tried to assess personality by feeling bumps and indentations on a person's head
are long standing, pervasive and inflexible patterns of inner experience and outward behavior that deviates from societal and cultural expectations.
This pattern is seen in most interactions, differs from the experiences and behaviors usually expected of people, and continues for years
The rigid traits of people with personality disorders often lead to psychological pain for the individual and social or occupational difficulties
The disorder may also bring pain to others
A personality disorder typically becomes recognizable in adolescence or early adulthood
What are personality disorders?
Personality disorders are extremes of personality traits, not just the presence of specific personality traits.
Personality disorders are generally more difficult to treat than other disorders, largely due to their pervasive and inflexible nature.
It has been estimated that 9% to 13% of all adults may have a personality disorder
People with the same personality disorder can have very different personalities. Individuals must meet a certain "number of criteria" for a diagnosis of a specific personality disorder, but no "single feature" is necessary for a particular diagnosis, and other personality traits can vary considerably.
Personality Disorders have many overlapping characteristics, which contributes to the difficulty in making an accurate diagnosis.
Odd or Eccentric behavior:
Includes Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, and Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic
behavior: Includes Antisocial Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, and Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
Anxious or Fearful behavior:
Includes Avoidant Personality Disorder, Dependent Personality Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder.
Personality Disorders are often difficult to diagnose accurately because of their many overlapping features.
Personality traits that are characteristic of a disorder (e.g. paranoia, dependency, or obsessiveness) can be found in many people. It is not unusual to see these traits magnified to the intensity of a personality disorder.
Some characteristics of a personality disorder can be found in other specific disorders. (e.g. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder, Schizophrenia and Odd/Eccentric Cluster Personality Disorders)
Generally the defining characteristics of the Personality Disorder are ego-syntonic (the individuals accept these characteristics as a basic part of who they are), and therefore they so not view these characteristics or traits as problematic.
Criticism of the Diagnostics
Personality Disorders are considered by some to be a diagnostically unsound category, with problems with both reliability (consistency) and validity (accuracy).
Some of diagnostic criteria cannot be observed directly. Clinician's "subjective assessment" is heavily relied upon in making inferences about the individual's personality across time and various situations.
Diagnostic "criteria" for each Personality Disorder has changed considerably with each DSM revision, due to the difficulty in determining accurate criteria for the category.
Diagnostic "categories" continue to shift as well. Currently under consideration for a future edition of the DSM are: Depressive Personality Disorder and Negativistic Personality Disorder (Passive-Aggressive Personality)
Criticism of the Diagnostics, theories
Many theorist believe personality disorders should be based on degree of dysfunction rather than type of dysfunction.
Dimensional system of diagnosis has been considered in depth. In this kind of system, everyone would be rated on a standard set of personality dimensions or traits, and receive scores indicating the degree to which they display each trait.
The similarity of disorders within a cluster or between clusters creates classification difficulties, which often occurs
Personality disorders have limited diagnostic usefulness when individuals meet criteria for more than 1 personality disorder.
Research shows that Personality Disorders have poor diagnostic "reliability" across clinicians.
DSM-5's categorical approach assumes that:
Problematic personality traits/disorders are either present or absent
Personality disorders do not include traits outside of that disorder
Example Alternate Diagnostic System
Big 5 Theory of Personality -Dimensional Approach
A large body of research conducted with diverse populations consistently suggests that the basic structure of personality may consist of five "supertraits" or factors
Traits are: Neuroticism; Extroversion; Openness to Experience; Agreeableness; & Conscientiousness
Each of "Big Five" factors consists of a number of subfactors
All individuals can be rated on a continuum for each trait; everyone's personality can be summarized by a combination of these supertraits
Could describe all people with PD's as either high, medium, or low on the 5 traits rather than the current approach of having discrete categories
Trait Specified: Dimensional Approach
The DSM-5 Framers have designed their own alternative dimensional approach for possible use in a future revision
People whose traits significantly impair their functioning should receive a diagnosis called personality disorder— trait specified (PDTS)
When assigning this diagnosis, clinicians would also identify and list the problematic traits and rate the severity of impairment caused by them.
5 point scale: 0=little or no impairment 4=extreme impairment
Trait Specified: Dimensional Approach list
According to the proposal, five groups of problematic traits would be eligible for a diagnosis of PDTS:
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