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Unit 1 Chapters 1-4 Study Guide
Terms in this set (50)
Sub-disciplines of Anthropology
--Why cultures differ
--why universals exist
--why cultures change
fieldwork in a specific society (description)
a book or report describing the culture of a specific society
study of past cultures
study of human physical variation
study of primates
language variation and change over time
using the methods and knowledge of anthropology to solve "real world" problems
-non profit organizations
idea that we are not going to judge another culture by our own standards
thinking your culture is the best and all other cultures are inferior
Definitions of Culture
the way of life of a group of people.
a set of shared concepts and patterns of learned behavior that are passed down from one generation to the next through language and imitation.
sets of shared concepts:
Sir Edward Tyler's definition of culture:
"culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by a man as a member of society."
sets of expectations that people have about appropriate behavior.
each culture has its own set of norms.
appropriate behavior in a given situation
shared ideas about what is right and wrong, desirable and undesirable
have shared meaning within a culture.
something that stands for something else.
there is an arbitrary (and culturally based) connection between a symbol and its meaning.
gestures are kinds of symbols.
signs can be symbols.
the same symbol can have a different meaning in a different culture.
this can lead to cross-cultural misunderstandings.
Characteristics of Culture
culture is learned.
culture is shared by a group of people (society).
culture is adaptive.
the spread of an object, idea or behavior from one society to another
the development with a culture of a new object, idea or behavior
the process by which a child learns his or her culture
Levels of Culture
national culture (American, French, Japanese, etc.)
Types of Culture Change
Adaptive Aspects of Culture
helps people adapt to:
American Anthropological Association (AAA)
Code of Ethics
-do not harm
-respect dignity of people studied
gather reliable "data" (facts)
emic (insider's) perspective
etic perspective (outsider's/scientific)
agreement to take part in the research, after having been so informed
taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing
the ethnographer talks face-to-face with people, asks the questions, and writes down the answers
or informant, refers to individuals the ethnographer gets to know in the field, the people who teach him or her about their culture, who provide the emic perspective
Key Cultural Consultants
an expert on a particular aspect of local life who helps the ethnographer understand that aspect
investigates how local people think
scientist-orients approach shifts the focus from local observations, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist
procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship, descent, and marriage, using diagrams and symbols
involves sampling, impersonal data collection, and statistical analysis
Video: A Man Called Bee
Yanomamo society in Brazil and Venezuela
Anthropologist Napolean Chagnon
-exchange of gifts
Franz Boas 1900
described changes in skull form among the children of Europeans who had migrated to the United States
didn't start as anthropologist, but a physicist
born in Poland but went to England to study anthropology
by that time, idea of field work was a standard idea
fieldwork in Trobiand Islands
because of the war, he couldn't leave for 3 years
using the knowledge and methods of anthropology to:
-identify and assess problems
-suggest, plan and implement policies to solve problems
ethnographic method important
History of Applied Anthropology
early 1900s-applied anthropology and colialism:
-Malinowski and westernization
during WWII (1940s)-studies of Japan and Germany
1960's-1970's: academic anthropology grows
1970's: applied anthropology grows
encompasses a series of processes, including diffusion, migration, and acculturation, working to promote change in a world in which nations and people are increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent
planning and innovation
-Bali and Green Revolution
the tendency to view the "less developed countries" as more alike than they are
too much change
How is Culture Learned?
process of enculturation
How is Culture Shared?
by individuals as members of a group
culture is shared, but within a culture
culture is contested
behaviors that violate cultural norms and expectations
Sir Edward Tyler
father of anthropology
social philosopher because there was no anthropology at the time
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