-Created at the Manila Conference in 1954
-Brainchild of Dulles
-Signatories = US, UK, France, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand
-Only really required consultation; was not a mutual defense pact
-Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos were protected in protocol, but was not an actual treaty
-The treaty was aimed at combating China's rising power
-Provided later justification for intervention in Vietnam
-Very much a failed treaty
-cooperation between the U.S. and Latin America - developing democracy, raising education, incomes, civil liberties, economic stability & development
-US aid increased to L.A. by roughly 3 times (Nixon reverses this); while respective countries made matching investments as well
-The US would suspend aid and relations to countries w/ dictatorship
-Under the Nixon administration, this was largely criticized - it was too difficult to change internal conditions of these countries; and the US was wasting its money
-Conditions improved in about half of the Latin American countries; education, medicine, civil liberties, wealth inequality did improve some places; in many other places, things got worse, and dictatorships were instated
-What was more important: start of long-range reform in relations with Latin America → decades later (could be "good neighbor")
-Generally good PR for the Kennedy administration. Overall, Latin American countries were not all receptive, LBJ and Nixon were not a fan, and there was not enough US money invested - these are the reasons why it failed
1970 (US, Britain, Soviet union sign on July 1, 1968, went into effect in '70)
France, China, Israel, India, Pakistan, and South Africa all initially rejected or refused to sign or didn't abide
Only five states could possess nuclear weapons - US, USSR, UK, China, France; nobody else could develop it; and those 5 states were forced to communicate
Currently, 191 signatories - so clearly a long term impact
West Germany agreed to not develop nuclear weapons
the right to peacefully use nuclear technology
Countries with nuclear weapons will move towards disarmament; countries without nuclear weapons will not acquire them; and all countries can access peaceful nuclear technology.
Crowning achievement of LBJ's foreign legacy (he signed it)
Rather successful in slowing nuclear production, but was not a nostrum
Republican Senator from MA and ambassador to UN, South Vietnam, West Germany, and Holy See
Republican VP nominee in 1960 Presidential election w/ Nixon; generally more of a progressive / liberal
Called US racial discrimination "our Achilles' heel before the world" when he was ambassador to the UH
Grandson of Wilson's major adversary Henry Cabot Lodge
Lodge quickly determined that Ngo Dinh Diem, President of the Republic of Vietnam, was inept, corrupt, and obstructionist -- South Vietnam was headed for disaster unless Diem reformed his administration or was replaced - thus tacitly supported a Coup against him
As ambassador to South Vietnam from 1965 to 1967, Lodge supported President Johnson's decision to escalate American involvement in the Vietnam War, believing strongly that a communist takeover in the South would be disastrous for U.S. foreign policy goals. - He viewed LBJ high election numbers as a public mandate
He also advocated for political, diplomatic solutions within South Vietnam
Many US officials and Lodge were very disgusted by Diem and his brother's role in the Buddhist Massacres - another factor that led to his support for a Coup
championed by Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, during the 1970s period of Cold War Détente
aimed to persuade the Soviet Union and Communist China to co-operate in restraining revolutions in the Third World in return for concessions in nuclear and economic fields (also no sanctions)
Entice Soviet on one compromise to try to push for progress in another issue
Kissinger argued that if Moscow and Peking refrained from supplying arms to North Vietnam, Hanoi would have to agree to peace.
A large number of revolutions still occurred in these third world countries, thereby undermining this policy.
The premise behind linkage, as a policy, was to connect political and military issues, thereby establishing a relationship making progress in area "A" dependent on progress in area "B."
Kissinger and Nixon believed that linkage-making negotiating progress in one area with the Soviet Union dependant upon progress in another-provided the best tactic for achieving several key international goals, including détente, strategic arms control, ending the war in Vietnam, and reaching settlements in the Middle East and Berlin.
Nixon and Kissinger went to great lengths to link progress on détente and SALT to the Kremlin's willingness to press its client in Hanoi to negotiate an end to the fighting in Vietnam.