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Terms in this set (177)
Ch.1: Define Nutrition.
Study of the nutrients in our food and how it interacts with our body and health.
A substance that the body requires for energy, regulation of body processes and structure.
Ch.1: Define Essential.
Must be acquired by diet.
Ch.1: Define Non-Essential.
The body makes enough.
Ch.1: Define Calorie.
Scientific unit used to measure energy.
Ch.1: Define Macronutrient.
Provide energy: carbs, protein, fat, and water (doesn't provide energy).
Ch.1: Define Micronutrient.
Only helps the body release energy: vitamins and minerals
Ch.1: Define Phytochemicals.
Not a nutrient; Are chemical compounds in plants that have various effects on body function.
Ch.1: Which nutrients supply energy (ie. contain Calories)?
Ch.1: How do you calculate the total calories in a food item using the macronutrient composition provided on a nutrition facts label?
1g carbs= 4kcal
1g protein= 4kcal
1g protein= 9kcal
Ch.1: Describe water soluble vitamins.
All other vitamins. Don't stay in body for long periods of time and dissolve in water.
Ch.1: Describe fat soluble vitamins.
A,D,E,K; don't dissolve in water, stay in body longer periods of time.
Ch.1: What are the factors that influence food choices?
Taste, Environment, Culture and Tradition, Family, Finances, Convenience, The media, Age, Health Issues.
Ch.1: What are the regions in the world that undernutrition is most prominent.
Africa, South East Asia, Central and some parts of South America
Ch.2: What are the 3 components of a healthy eating plan.
Variety, Balance, Moderation.
Ch.2: List examples of nutrient dense foods and foods that contain empty calories.
Nutrient Density - Orange (the fruit) Empty Calories - Orange soda
Ch.2: What is the purpose of DRIs.
To tell people how much of each nutrient they should be eating.
Ch.2: What are the different sets of values that comprise the DRIs.
Estimated Average requirement (EAR).
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA).
Adequate Intake (AI).
Tolerable Upper Intake Level.
Ch.2: What are the 3 basic types of label claims allowed on food products? Be able to identify examples of each claim.
Ch.2: What is an example of a Health Claim?
Reduces risk of certain disease.
Ch.2: What is an example of a Nutrient Content Claim?
Low in fat & high in calcium .
Ch.2: What is an example of a Structure/Function Claim?
High in calcium & calcium supports strong bones.
Ch.3: What are the primary monosaccharide in foods? What are some dietary sources?
Glucose- most common form, in very few foods, circulates in blood.
Fructose- found abundantly in fruits and honey.
Galactose- component of lactose in milk, found in pectin and other dairy fibers.
Ch.3: What are the primary disaccharides in foods? What are some dietary sources?
Sucrose- (Fructose/Glucose) Honey & Table Sugar
Maltose- (Glucosex2) Malt Balls
Lactose- (Glucose/Galactose) Milk
Ch.3: Define nutritive sweeteners and be able to identify examples of each.
ex: sucrose, fructose, honey, molasses, high fructose corn syrup, sugar alcohol.
Ch.3: What is a Polysaccharides?
Composed of chain with thousands of glucose molecules linked together.
Ch.3: What are the 4 types complex carbohydrates?
Polysaccharides, Starch, Glycogen, Dietary fiber.
Ch.3: Define non-nutritive sweeteners and be able to identify examples of each.
Don't yield calories.
ex: Aspartame (Equal), Steevia (Trivia), Acesulfame-K (Sunnett, diet beverages), Saccharin (Sweet'n Low), Sucralose (Splenda)
Ch.3: What is a Starch?
The storage form of carbohydrate found in plants.
Ch.3: What is Glycogen?
Storage from of carbohydrate found in liver and muscle of animals
Ch.3: What is Dietary Fiber?
Composed of repeating units of glucose and other monosaccharides that cannot be digested by human enzymes.
Ch.3: What are the primary components of whole grains?
Endosperm, Bran, Germ.
Ch.3: Which components grains are removed during the refining process?
Germ & Bran.
Ch.3: What are the roles of insulin and glucagon in regulating blood glucose.
Insulin to take up glucose so body can use it.
Glucagon and epinephrine to bring it down.
Ch.3: What are type 1 diabetes mellitus and what are the associated complications?
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (juvenile diabetes) - Pancreas is unable to produce insulin bc it sees beta cells as foreign, autoimmune disease.
Ch.3: What are type 2 diabetes mellitus and what are the associated complications?
Accounts for more than 90% of all cases of diabetes mellitus. Cells are insulin resistant.
People are typically over age 40 and overweight or obese when diagnosed.
Ch.3: What are gestational diabetes mellitus and what are the associated complications?
Complications for infant: can cause fetal or infant illness or death, high birth weight (macrosomia) of infant, Low blood glucose at delivery, Diagnosis of DM type 2 later in life Complications for mother: Greater likelihood of developing DM type 2 within 5 to 10 years
Ch.3: What is soluble fiber and what are sources and the benefits of it?
Can dissolve in water. Jellylike material that acts like a cement in plants.
Health Benefits: Binds to bile in intestine, can aid in lowering blood cholesterol, may reduce risk of heart disease.
Food sources: Fruit, Legumes, Oat bran, Potatoes, Peas
Ch.3: What is insoluble fiber and what are sources and the benefits of it?
Cannot be dissolved in water. Composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.
Health Benefits: May soften stools and accelerate passage of contents through the gastrointestinal tract. Food Sources: Cereals, Whole grains, Wheat bran, Legumes, and Brown rice.
Ch.3: What is resistant starch and what are sources and the benefits of it?
Is starch that escapes digestion within the small intestine but is not classified as dietary fiber.
R1: least digestible.
Ex. under coating of seeds, unprocessed whole grains, and legumes.
R2 :more granular type of starch.
Ex. uncooked potatoes and green banana flours, improve blood glucose control & gut flora.
R3: created by first cooking and then cooling rapidly a high-starch food.
Ex: Breads, cornflakes, and cooked-then-cooled potatoes have this type of starch. May help with satiety, improve glucose control, and gut flora.
R4 is chemically synthesized.
Ch.3: What is Celiac Disease and what are the appropriate foods with those diseases?
Intolerance to gluten that results in autoimmune response. Foods: nothing with gluten. Usually find gluten in wheat, barley, rye, and some oats.
Ch.3: What is lactose intolerance? What foods can be included in the diet of a lactose intolerant individual to help them obtain calcium without gastrointestinal symptoms?
Not being able to digest lactose due to loss of function of enzyme lactase.
Food options: Smaller portions at one time, lactose-hydrolyzed milk, yogurt, lactase drops or pills, soy milk and other non-dairy, milk alternatives.
Ch.4: What are the classes of Lipids?
Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols.
Ch.4: What are common sources of Saturated in the American diet?
Beef, pork, poultry with skin and other meats, Cheese, butter, and other dairy products, Palm and coconut oils (tropical oils);
Ch.4: What are common sources of Unsaturated in the American diet?
Vegetable oils, Nuts and seeds, Fish.
Ch.4: What are common sources of Trans Fatty Acids in the American diet?
Store-bought cakes, cookies and crackers, margarine, shortening.
Ch.4: What are common sources of Cholesterol in the American diet?
Only found in animal products .
Ch.4: What are the two essential fatty acids?
Omega 6 (Linoleic Acid) & Omega 3 (Linolenic Acid).
Ch.4: What are dietary sources for Omega 6?
(Linoleic Acid): soybean, corn, fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds, and safflower oil.
Ch.4: What are dietary sources for Omega 3?
(Linolenic Acid): flax seed, flax oil, pumpkin seed, walnut oil, walnuts, green leafy vegetables, and canola oil.
Ch.4: What functions do lipids perform in our bodies and in foods?
Flavor and satiety, storage of energy as fat tissue, steroid hormone production, absorption of fat soluble vitamins by small intestine, components of cell membrane, organ protection (fat around kidneys), protect heart (essential fatty acids).
Ch.4: Identify the type of lipid carried by each of the four lipoproteins.
Chylomicrons- dietary lipids to the liver.
Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) - triglycerides to other tissues.
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)- cholesterol to other tissues, including blood vessels.
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) - removes excess cholesterol from cells return to liver for elimination.
Ch.4: What is the Function of Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) and their impact on heart disease?
Formed after VLDLs deposit triglycerides in other tissues, cholesterol rich, deliver cholesterol to other tissues, including blood vessels.
Ch.4: What is the Function of High-Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) and their impact on heart disease?
Made mostly in the liver but also in the small intestine. Removes excess cholesterol from cells & return to liver for elimination.
Ch.4: How does the Mediterranean diet compare to the typical Western diet?
Most to least: fruits, vegetables, grains-seafood and fish-poultry, eggs, cheese, and yogurt-meat and sweets.
Drink water and wine in moderation.
They eat more vegetables and are healthier but the diet is higher in fat.
Ch.4: What type of fats is associated with increased incidence of cancer and heart disease?
High levels of saturated fat linked to increased incidence of breast, ovarian, colon and prostate cancers.
Ch.4: What types of fats are associated with reduced incidence of cancer and heart disease incidence?
Consumption of fatty fish and fish oil high in omega-3 fatty acids associated with decreased incidence of colon, breast, lung, esophageal, skin, and pancreatic cancers.
Ch.5: What elemental units make up amino acids?
Parts: Amino group, Acid group (carboxyl), Hydrogen group, R group (side chain) Elements in a protein: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Ch.5: Define Deamination.
Occurs in the liver, amino group converted to urea.
Ch.5: Define Denaturation.
A protein's structure can be changed by heat, acid, enzymes, agitation, or alcohol.
Ch.5: Define Transamination.
Transfer of amine group from one molecule to another to create an amino acid.
Ch.5: Define Essential Amino Acid.
Our body can't make them in adequate amounts.
Ch.5: Define Non-Essential Amino Acid.
Our body can make them in adequate amounts.
Ch.5: Define Conditionally Essential Amino Acid.
Sometimes our bodies can't make them in adequate amounts.
Ch.5: What are the functions of proteins in the body?
Hormones, growth/maintenance/repair, body structure and blood, fluid balance, transport, acid base balance, immune function, enzymes.
Ch.5: Describe situations in which a person would be in positive nitrogen balance.
Occurs during growth, recovery from illness, and during pregnancy.
Ch.5: Describe situations in which a person would be in negative nitrogen balance.
Occurs during AIDS, cancer, starvation, and low calorie diets.
Ch.5: What are the potential health benefits and nutritional deficiencies associated
with vegetarian diets?
Health benefits: decreased rate of heart disease and obesity.
Deficiencies: vitamin B12, Zinc, Iron, Calcium, Vitamin D, Protein.
Ch.5: What are complete proteins and 3 dietary sources?
Provide all essential amino acids in amounts needed by body, easily digested and absorbed.
Sources: Animal proteins, and soy- only type of vege protein that is complete, and dairy ones.
Ch.5: What are incomplete proteins and 3 dietary sources?
Do not contain all essential amino acids in amount required by body.
Sources: legumes, grains, and vegetables.
Ch.5: What are complementary proteins and 3 dietary sources?
Amino acid contents combined provide all EAA.
Sources: PB&J, rice and beans.
Ch.5: What is Protein Energy Malnutrition?
Disorder that occurs with inadequate protein and/or energy consumption.
Most common nutrient deficiency in hospital and nursing home populations in United States.
Greater concern internationally: infants and young children most susceptible.
Most lethal form of malnutrition.
Ch.5: What is Marasmus?
In 25-35% of kids in low income areas, condition of starvation characterized by emaciation, or skeletal appearance.
Causes: inadequate protein and calorie intake.
Ch.5: What is Kwashiorkor?
Common in developing countries.
Characterized by swollen appearance (especially the abdomen).
Proposed causes: low protein intake & altered gut bacterial populations.
Frequent in children being weaned from breast milk to cereal.
Ch.6: What is Digestion?
Move food through the GI tract.
Break down of food to smaller compounds.
Primary site is in small intestine.
Ch.6: What is Absorption?
Cross lining of intestine to enter body.
Ch.6: What is the location of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter?
Bottom of esophagus.
Ch.6: What is the location of the Pyloric Sphincter?
Bottom of stomach.
Ch.6: What is the location of the Ileocecal Valve?
Separates small intestine from cecum of large intestine.
Ch.6: What are the 5 Gastric Secretions?
Ch.6: What is the Function of Mucus?
Protects the lining of the stomach from HCL.
Ch.6: What is the Function of HCL?
Denatures proteins, liquefies foods, activates the enzymes pepsin and lingual lipase, helps prepare iron for absorption.
Ch.6: What is the Function of Intrinsic Factor?
Is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.
Ch.6: What is the Function of Pepsinogen?
Is a proenzyme (inactive) that gets converted to active form (pepsin) by stomach acid. It aids in protein digestion by breaking long chains into shorter chains.
Ch.6: What is the Function of Hormones (Gastrin)?
Control movement of the stomach and secretion of HCL, communicate with the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and rest of body.
Ch.6: What structures in the small intestine facilitate absorption of nutrients?
Villi and microvilli.
Ch.6: Identify how the following terms are related to energy metabolism: glycolysis, pyruvate, lactate, acetyl CoA, Krebs Cycle, electron transport chain.
-Glycolysis is first step and is anaerobic.
-Glucose is converted to pyruvate. If sufficient oxygen is available then aerobic metabolism occurs.
-Pyruvate becomes acetyl CoA.
-Then enters the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or Kreb's cycle.
-If oxygen isn't available then pyruvate becomes lactate.
-The final step is ATP creation.
Electron carriers NAD and FAD take electrons to the electron transport chain, the site of ATP production in the mitochondria.
Ch.6: Describe the fate of additional glucose, fats, and amino acids in the body when energy needs are met and these nutrients are not needed for energy.
Glucose(carbs) are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. Fats are stored as fats. Body does not have a large amino acid pool so extra amino acids would be there.
Ch.6: What compounds may be stored as fat?
Fats, carbs, alcohol, amino acids.
Ch.6: What is/are the most common cause(s) of peptic ulcers?
Heliobacter pyolori Other causes: regular use of aspirin, overconsumption of alcohol, and smoking.
Ch.6: What is Probiotic and what is a food source of it?
Live microorganisms that can have a beneficial effect on health.
Ex: yogurt & sauerkraut
Ch.6: What is Prebiotic and what is a food source of it?
Non-digestible carbohydrate sources used to support metabolism of microbes in large intestine.
Ex: asparagus & oatmeal
Ch.6: What is Synbiotic and what is a food source of it?
Has both microorganisms and non-digestible carbohydrate sources.
Ch.7: What is the relationship between energy balance (calories in vs. calories out) and body weight?
Weight Maintenance: Kcal in = Kcal out
Weight Gain: Kcal in > Kcal out
Weight Loss: Kcal in < Kcal out
Ch.7: What are the components of total energy expenditure?
Resting energy expenditure.
Thermal effect of food.
Ch.7: What are the BMI ranges to determine if an individual is underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese?
Underweight: < 18.5
Normal weight: 18.5 - 24.9
Overweight: 25 - 29.5
Ch.7: What are limitations of BMI?
Doesn't distinguish between fat and muscle.
Ethnicities vary on it.
Has many limitations for men and the elderly.
Ch.7: What is the relationship between location of excess body fat and risk of chronic conditions and mortality?
Gynoid pattern: Subcutaneous fat: Fat over muscle and under skin at hips and thighs.
Android pattern: Visceral fat: Body fat can be stored under the abdominal muscle around the internal organs. Associated with increased risk for chronic conditions due to excess fat.
Ch.7: What are the hormones and neurotransmitters that influence hunger/appetite and weight status?
Leptin: Hormone released by fat cells to signal the brain that the body has had enough to eat. Contributes to long term weight control. Neuropeptide Y: Compound (neurotransmitter) that increases food intake and blood glucose levels. Promoting the storage of energy in fat cells.
Gremlin: A hunger-stimulating hormone produced by cells lining the stomach when stomach is empty increases with weight loss because body is used to more.
Ch.7: What is hunger?
The need to eat.
Ch.7: What is appetite?
The desire to eat.
Ch.7: What are the general recommendations for treating childhood obesity?
Encourage them to maintain their weight and let them grow in to it with height.
Ch.8: What is the greatest source of water intake?
Beverages are greatest source of intake.
Ch.8: What is the greatest source of water loss?
Urine is greatest source of loss.
Ch.8: How is water retention and intake regulated in the body?
Hypothalamus: Controls brains perceived need for water.
Antidiuretic hormone: Released by pituitary gland to signal kidneys to retain water. Aldosterone: Produced by adrenal glands above kidneys and induces kidneys to retain sodium and water.
Ch.8: Describe the difference between dehydration and hyponatremia. Which population is at high risk of hyponatremia?
Dehydration is when you don't have enough water. Hyponatremia is consuming excess water. Runners at risk for hyponatremia before races by over drinking.
Ch.8: What are the functions of water in our body?
Body temperature regulation.
Water absorbs body heat & heat is released at skin via sweat.
Ch.8: What are the functions of electrolytes in our body?
Water and electrolyte balance, Acid-base balance (pH), Nerve Transmissions, Gastric pH.
Ch.8: What are 3 foods high in sodium?
Salt, dill pickle, chicken broth, canned meats.
Ch.8: What are 3 foods high in potassium?
Fresh fruits and veges, legumes, milk.
Ch.8: What is the Adequate Intake (AI) for water for healthy adults?
1-1.5mL per kcal of energy expended.
Ch.8: What organ is responsible for water and waste elimination in the body?
Ch.8: What minerals influence blood pressure and what are the effects on blood pressure?
Sodium: High amounts may increase risk of hypertension in some people.
Potassium: Appears to relax blood vessels, which lowers BP, recommended to increase potassium intake.
Other minerals: Magnesium & Calcium
Ch.9: What is the general function of vitamins and minerals?
Help in energy metabolism, not energy yielding.
Ch.9: What are the Fat Soluble Vitamins?
Ch.9: What are the Water Soluble Vitamins?
B Vitamins & Vitamin C
Ch.9: What is the difference between preformed and provitamin A?
Preformed: ready to use.
Ex: Fortified foods and animal based.
Pro: Can be converted into usable form when needed.
Ex: Beta carotene.
Ch.9: What are the symptoms of Vitamin A Deficiency?
Night blindness, eventually xerophthalmia.
Ch.9: What is the role of vitamin D in calcium metabolism?
Stimulates calcium release from bone and formation of calbindin (a calcium binding protein).
Ch.9: What are dietary and non-dietary sources of vitamin D?
Fortified foods (not cheese and yogurt), cod, liver, & salmon.
Ch.9: Describe synthesis and activation of vitamin D in the body,
Cholesterol in skin is hit by UV rays, inactive form goes to liver, liver activates it into D3.
Ch.9: What chronic condition(s) is/are associated with vitamin D deficiency?
Rickets & osteomalacia.
Ch.9: What is the primary function of Vitamin E?
Acts as antioxidant (along w/ vitamin C).
Nerve cell development.
Ch.9: What population is at greatest risk for Vitamin E deficiency?
Ch.9: What are the primary functions of vitamin K?
Ch.9: What condition is caused by Vitamin C deficiency?
Ch.9: What population group has an increased requirement for Vitamin C?
Ch.9: What are 3 good dietary sources of Vitamin C?
OJ, Citrus Fruits, Sweet Potatoes, Brussel Sprouts.
Ch.9: What is Anemia?
Deficiency conditions associated with thiamin (B1),
niacin (B3), folate (B9) and vitamin B12 (cobalamin).
Ch.9: What is the primary function of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)?
Ch.9: What is the primary function of vitamin B9 (Folate)?
Cell division/nervous system development during fetal development.
Ch.9: What is the primary function of vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)?
The upkeep of myelin sheath.
Ch.9: When B12 is consumed from food, what must happen first in the stomach so that B12 can eventually be absorbed?
Must be released from protein w/ help of HCl and pepsin.
Ch.9: What protein is required for B12 absorption?
Ch.9: What individuals at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency and why these
individuals are at risk?
Older people, people w/ a genetic defect, people w/ part of the stomach removed because they aren't able to absorb it as well or they typically don't take enough in.
Ch.9: What is Enrichment?
Adding something back to a food that was removed during processing.
Ch.9: What is Fortification?
Adding something to a food that was never there.
Ch.10: Describe the process of blood calcium regulation when blood calcium
Kidneys excrete less, bones give off more, PTH and vitamin D trigger calcitriferol to work.
Ch.10: What are the functions of calcium in the body?
Maintaining bones, muscle contraction, nerve impulse conduction, hormone regulation, blood clotting.
Ch.10: What are 3 good dietary sources of calcium?
Milk, fish w/ bone still in, greens (not spinach).
Ch.10: What are the primary functions of magnesium and phosphorus in the body?
Regulate & maintain DNA and RNA, bone health.
Ch.10: What minerals are involved with bone health?
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium (also relaxes muscles).
Ch.10: What are the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis?
Modifiable: Increase weight if underweight, lower alcohol consumption, stop smoking.
Non modifiable: small frame, white/Asian, being old.
Ch.10: What is the role of iron in the body?
In hemoglobin to deliver oxygen to body
Ch.10: What are food sources for heme iron?
Ch.10: What are food sources for non-heme iron?
Ch.10: What factors can increase and what factors decrease iron absorption?
Increased by: Amount of protein present (MPF factor), vitamin C. Decreased by: tannins and typhates.
Ch.10: Who has increased iron requirements?
Women on period, people of old age, pregnant women.
Ch.10: What is the primary function of copper and zinc in the body?
To be a cofactor for enzymes and help iron get in hemoglobin.
Ch.10: What is the primary role of iodine in the body?
Production of a hormone in thyroid gland, thyroxine.
Ch.10: What may occur if an individual becomes iodine deficient?
They could develop a goiter.
Ch.10: What are 2 dietary sources of iodine?
Ch.10: What is the primary function of fluoride in the body? What is a good dietary source of fluoride?
Function: Protect crystals in teeth.
Sources: Tap water
Ch.10: What is the leading nutrient deficiency worldwide?
Ch.11: What are the two federal agencies involved in regulating supplements and supplement claims and labeling?
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) & Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
Ch.11: What populations are dietary supplement use is most prevalent?
Elderly* (largest sub-group)
Those with higher education level
Ch.12: For which nutrients does the RDA/AI increase during pregnancy?
200-300 more calories after 1st trimester.
Essential Fatty Acids
Vitamin C & Vitamin A
Ch.12: What is the negative impact of consuming alcohol during pregnancy?
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Ch.12: What food-borne illnesses are of greatest concern during pregnancy and what foods are they found in?
Found in: Uncooked meats and vegetables and unpasteurized milk. Ready to eat foods (ie. Hot dogs and deli meats)
Found in: Undercooked meat & Cat litter.
Ch.12: How does the composition of breast milk differ from the composition of infant formula?
Has more calories, protein and fat.
However formula has more iron, vitamin a and d and folic acid.
Ch.12: What is colostrum?
First milk produced after birth.
High in protein.
Contains maternal antibodies and serves as a laxative to clear meconium.
Ch.12: What are the recommendations for feeding an infant during the first year of life?
Exclusively breast feed for first 6 months.
Continued supplemental breast-feeding for up to 1 year.
No additional benefit to infant beyond 1 year of age.
Solid foods should be offered along with breast milk after 6 months of age.
Ch.13: Describe the rate of growth of children.
Rate of growth during toddler years is rapid.
Ch.13: How do calorie requirements during childhood change in terms of calorie per kg per day and total calories per day?
kcal/kg/day generally stable from 2-8 but decrease in adult years.
kcal/day increase as age increases.
Ch.13: Which group of children is at greatest risk for iron-deficiency?
Children in low-income families.
Ch.13: What are good sources of iron for children?
Lean meat, peanut butter, fortified breakfast cereals and grains, apricots.
Ch.13: What is lead toxicity and why it is a health concern for children?
Another cause of anemia:
Inhibits iron absorption
Inhibits enzyme needed to synthesize hemoglobin.
Developing brains are sensitive to lead early exposure can lead to lifelong learning disabilities.
Ch.13: How is overweight and obesity classified and determined in children and adolescents?
Overweight: 85th to less than 95th percentile.
Obese: 95th percentile or greater.
Underweight: Less than 5th percentile.
Ch.13: What are poor eating habits commonly seen in teens and associated health consequences?
Inadequate consumption of calcium-rich foods.
Nutrient poor food selection away from home.
Dieting due to body image issues.
Ch.13: What are the social, psychological, physical and physiological aspects of aging and the impact each can have on nutrition?
Loss of teeth and xerostomia (dry mouth):
Difficulty chewing and swallowing.
Loss of neuromuscular coordination:
Cooking and feeding oneself is difficult.
Impaired hearing and vision:
Age related macular degeneration.
Loss of muscle mass:
Reduced basal metabolism and calorie needs.
Ch.13: What are the risk factors for undernutrition in the elderly?
Little or no appetite.
Problems with chewing or swallowing.
Consuming inadequate amounts of nutrients.
Eating fewer than two meals a day.
Ch.14: What is Fitness?
Ability to perform moderate-to-vigorous levels of physical activity without undue fatigue throughout life.
Ch.14: What are the components of Fitness?
Cardiorespiratory endurance, Muscular strength, Muscular endurance, & Flexibility
Ch.15: What is Anorexia Nervosa?
Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height. Characterized by: Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat.
Generally underweight with a poor body image.
Amenorrhea may occur.
Sub-types: Restricting type, Binging-eating/purging type.
Ch.15: What is Bulimia Nervosa?
Individual is generally of normal weight. They binge eat and then purge or over exercise afterward.
Ch.15: What are binge eating disorders?
Binge eating with no compensation afterward.
Ch.15: What are the components of athlete triad?
Eating disorders, amenorrhea, osteoporosis.
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