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Terms in this set (70)
What is a system?
Any activity or set of activities that requires an input, a process and an output
What is an ICT system?
An ICT system is a system that uses any form of digital technology
What is an ICT system a combination of?
Hardware and Software
Components of an ICT system?
Data, Hardware, Software, People, Information, Procedures
What is data capture?
The collection of data to enter into a computer
What is direct data capture?
Collection of data for a particular purpose e.g. reading item barcodes at a supermarket so the product can be identified
What is indirect data capture?
Collection of data as a by-product from another purpose e.g. using data from reading items barcodes to work out stock levels
What must information be?
Accurate, Relevant and Up-to-date
What does data mean?
Raw values, facts and figures
What does encoding data mean?
Putting the data into an appropriate binary code
How is data made up of words or symbols stored?
Stored in text or character form. Usually ASCII
What can images be stored as?
Bitmap, Vector graphics or JPEG
What is a bitmap?
A bitmap is the binary stored data representing an image
What are vector graphics?
Vector graphics store the image in terms of geometric data
What is an integer?
A whole number
What is a real number?
Numbers with a fractional part
What has to happen to sound at regular intervals?
It has to be sampled
What is a sampling rate?
The number of times the wave is sampled for a given time period
What is information?
Data that has been processed to give it a context which gives it meaning
What does a poor data source lead to?
Characteristics of the standard ICT user?
Environment of use
Categories of interface?
CLI (Command line interface)
GUI (Graphical user)
What is a CLI?
A user interface in which a user responds to a screen prompt by typing a command
What is a menu-based interface?
An interface that displays a set of options allowing the user to make a selection
What is a GUI?
An interface that is easy and intuitive to use but demands fast processing speeds and large computer memory
What does a GUI consist of?
What is an on-screen form?
Used to capture a set of data
Effective ICT team characteristics?
Adhere to good standards
Good communication skills
What is a VLE?
Virtual Learning Environment
What is needed to connect a computer to a LAN?
A network interface card
What does an individual require to connect to the internet?
What is a modem?
A device that can be plugged into a computer, it is also connected to a telephone line and provides a WAN
What does a broadband modem do differently to a standard modem?
It uses Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines (ASDL) and special compression techniques to gain faster transmission speeds
In addition, what do large organisations require as communication devices in a network environment?
- A number of servers
- High capacity hard disks
- A switch
Two common network cabling methods?
UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)
What type of network cabling is becoming more common?
FIBRE-OPTIC despite being more EXPENSIVE, it is typically FASTER than the conventional copper cables
What is a protocol?
A standard set of rules that defines how communication with the two computers takes place
What is a modem driver?
A program that controls the broadband modem
What is a browser?
A program that is needed to view HTML written web pages
What is an ISP?
It is a service the user must subscribe to, to gain access to webpages and email services
What is a standard?
A common way of doing something
What needs to be carried out if a user intends on entering a network safely?
What is essential for networks users?
A virus scanner and spyware protection
A very large number of computer networks that are linked together worldwide via telecommunications systems
What is the World Wide Web (WWW)?
A vast collection of pages of information in multimedia form held on the internet
What language are common webpages written in?
HTML (Hypertext Mark-Up Language)
What is an Intranet?
An intranet is a network based on internet protocols that belong to an organisation
What is an Extranet?
An extranet is an intranet that is made partially accessible to people outside an organisation
What is an EDI?
An electronic data interchange available on an extranet to exchange large volumes of data
What is an FTP?
A file transfer protocol - allows a file to be transferred from one ICT system to another
What is HTTP?
A standard for transferring Web Pages to a client computer.
What are De jure standards?
JPG image format
TCP/IP drawn up by CERN
What are De facto standards?
Have a historic precedence as a result of the marketing and sales success of a particular product
GIF Image format
What is personal data?
Data that covers both facts and opinions about a living person
What is the Data Protection Act 1998?
A set of rules for electronic processing of personal information
The law refers to both DATA SUBJECTS and DATA CONTROLLERS
What is computer crime?
Computer crime is any illegal act that has been committed using a computer as the principal tool
What is malpractice?
Negligent or improper professional behavior - breaking company rules
What is the Computer Misuse Act 1990?
An act introduced as a result of concerns about misusing the data and programs held on a computer
Why might data loss occur?
A hardware fault
Deliberate actions (sabotage)
What factors should be considered when planning a backup procedure?
What is to be backed up
When is the best time
How it will be carried out
What media should be uses
Whose responsibility it is
What is a full backup?
Easiest way to backup every piece of data on an ICT system
What is a differential backup?
A backup that only backs up the files which are different, or were updated after, the full backup
What is an incremental backup?
A backup that backs up only the files that have changed since the last backup
What is RAID?
A redundant array of inexpensive disks
What is disk mirroring?
Storing identical data on two different disks
Backup media decision factors?
Seriousness, Volume, Speed and Cost
What is batch processing
A method of processing used when there are large numbers of similar transactions
What is transaction processing?
Transaction processing is a mode of operation where data for each transaction is entered and a source and processed immediately
What is interactive processing?
Involves the user "having a conversation" with a computer using a mouse, keyboard etc.
Factors that effect the development of ICT systems?
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