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Ocuurs when physical forces break rock into smaller and smaller pieces without changing the rock's mineral composition

Frost wedging

the mechanical break up of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in craks and crevices


reduces pressure on igneous rock

Biological activity

The activity of organism breaks rocks


th elayer or rock and mineral fragmnets that covers most of the earth's land surface


the part of the regolith that supports the gwoth of palnts

Soil Horizon

zones or layes of the soil

Soil profile

a vertical thought all the soil horizontal

Mass movement

the transfer of rock and soil downslope due to gravity

Rock fall

rock or rock fragments fall freely thought the air

Rock slide

a block of material moves suddenly along a flat inclined surface


Freezing water liftes particles to the slopw and thawing allows the particles to fall back to a lower level

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