Biology Honors Unit IX: Ecology
Terms in this set (96)
The study of the interactions between organisms and the biotic and abiotic components of their environments.
A central idea to ecology that says no organism is isolated and the survival of organisms depend on their interactions with their surrounding environment
The broadest and most inclusive level of organization in ecology. It is made of every place that contains life from the deep ocean to in the atmosphere
An area with both biotic and abiotic components. It includes all the organisms and their abiotic environment.
All the interacting organisms living in an area
All members of a species that live in one place at one time
A single, living thing.
The environment and environmental factors that an organism lives in
The components that are living or once were living in the environment
The components that are nonliving and never lived in the environment. These factors aren't constant and can vary even within a habitat
A graph of performance vs. values of an environmental variable.
Process allowing organisms to adjust their tolerance to abiotic factors.
Organisms that don't regulate internal conditions and change as the environment changes for an abiotic factor
Organism that uses energy to control some of their internal conditions to combat an abiotic factor
A way to escape unfavorable conditions that is a state of reduced activity during which an organisms metabolism slows down
A way to escape unfavorable conditions that is when organisms move to a more favorable environment. It is tied to food availability
The energy and materials that an organism needs to survive
The role of an organism in its environment such as the range of conditions it can tolerate, the methods by which it obtains resources, and its interactions with other organisms
The range of conditions that a species can potentially tolerate and the range of resources it can potentially use. It is the same for all members in a species
The range of resources an organism actually uses. It differs per population or even per individual
Species with broad niches. They can tolerate a range of conditions and use a variety of resources
Species that have narrow niches. They can't tolerate a wide range of conditions and use only specific resources
The amount of individuals in a population
The amount of individuals of a population in a certain area like a square mile
The pattern of spacing of individuals in a population within geographic boundaries
Method used to measure population size where traps are set and animals captured are tagged and released. New traps are set in the same places later. The amount of individuals captured the second time that are tagged allows estimation
Population dispersion when organisms aggregate in patches
Population dispersion where the position of one organism is independent from the position of another
Population dispersion where organisms are equally spaced. Usually results from territoriality
Data about how population will change like birth rate, death rate, and life expectancy
A graphic curve that represents how many individuals are alive at each age
Type of survivorship curve that shows a low death early in life, like humans.
Type of survivorship curve that shows a constant mortality rate through all ages. E.g Squirrels
Type of survivorship curve that shows a high death rate early in life. E.g Oysters
Population growth rate
The amount by which a population's size changes in a given time
A model of population growth that is continuous at a steady rate. It assumes constant birth/death rates and no immigration or emmigration
A model of population growth where the population growth is regulated by carry capacity. A logistic growth grows exponentially and then levels off as it reaches the carrying capacity
The maximum stable population size a particular environment can support
Population limiting factors whose effect depends on the number of other individuals left in the same area
Population limiting factors whose effects don't depend on how many other individuals are in the same area
These populations are dangerous because of low genetic diversity from inbreeding so the population is less likely to adapt to environmental changes
Demographic Transition Model
A pulation model that shows how populations move from pre-industrial to transitional to post-industrial
An interaction in which one organism captures and eats all or part of another individual organism
Organism whose success is based off its adaptations to efficiently capture prey
Organism whose success is based off its ability to escape or prevent its own capture
An adaptation in which and animal species gains an advantage by resembling other species which may be poisonous, distasteful, or resemble an object
Poisonous, irritating, or bad-tasting compounds produced by plants to prevent consumtion
Competition that occurs between members of a species
Competition that occurs between members of different species
The elimination of one species in a community because no species can inhabit the same niche.
The evolution of differences in a characteristic due to competition
Use of different resources to avoid competition. It contributes to the difference between the fundamental and realized niche
A relationship in which two interacting species benefit
Relationship in which one species benefits and the other is not affected
Relationship in which one species feeds on the other species. They weaken, but don't kill the host right away.
The degree of species variety
The number of species in a community
The relative abundance of each species in a community; How common each species is in the community
Things that alter a community by eliminating or removing organisms or altering resource availability
A high species richness and high species evenness contribute to the _________ ________ positively.
The change in the species composition of a community over time
The assembly of a community on newly created habitat like soil recently exposed to the elements or new soil from glaciers or volcanic areas
Species that are the first to move into a new community. They are often mosses and lichens and the acids produced begin the process of soil formation
A relatively stable end point to succession
Succession occurring in places where the original ecosystem was cleared but the soil remained such as after a forest fire.
Areas defined by abiotic and biotic factors. The species composition of each one differs from location to location and human activity has radically altered the natural patterns of many biomes
Biome containing low growing plants. It has a windy cold climate with a short growing season
Tundra found in areas of Alaska and the Arctic Circle
Tundra found on very high mountain tops
Frozen soil found below one meter in the tundra. It inhibits root growth.
Tropical Rain Forest
Biome close to the equator that receive high amounts of rainfall and have a great variety of plants and animals. They are warm all the time and are the most biodiverse of the biomes
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Biome with dense stands of trees with cold summers and hot summers. These have deciduous trees which lose leaves and go dormant in winter. Humans have logged many of them
The largest terrestrial biome on Earth. They have long winters and short summers. They are warmer than the tundra and receive more rainfall. They are filled with coniferous trees
Biome with cold winters and hot summers. They are home to many grazing animals. They exhibit seasonal drought, fall and early spring fires. They are usually used for grazing and agriculture
The tropical grassland biome that has scattered trees and distinct wet and dry seasons. They are dominated by large herds of grazing animals.
Biome found in coastal regions with mild wet winters and hot dry summers. They contain dense spiny, evergreen shrubs and periodic fires
Biome with low rainfall and are generally hot. Inhabitants have adaptations for conserving water. Vegetation is sparse and many animals are nocturnal to avoid the heat.
The layer of an aquatic biome through which light penetrates and photosynthesis can occur
The layer of an aquatic biome through which very little light can penetrate
The bottom of any aquatic biome. It contains detritus and dead organic matter. It can be productive because of the great amount of nutrients.
The zone in a marine community where the land meets the water. They are alternately submerged and exposed by the cycle of tides. Organisms here must be able to survive air exposure and rough waves
The zone in a marine community which includes the shallow regions over the continental shelves. It contains coral reefs and receives nutrients from the bottom of the ocean. It's the most productive zone of the ocean
The zone in a marine community that extends past the continental shelves and can be very deep. Containing most of the ocean's water, it includes many free swimming fish and mammals
An area where freshwater and salt water meet. They are important feeding areas for many water fowl and organisms in the water must tolerate both fresh and salty water
The shallow and close to shore zone of a freshwater biome
The open surface water of a freshwater biome
The deep, aphotic water of a freshwater biome
Lakes that are deep and nutrient poor so they don't contain much life. They are geologically newer and have very clear waters
Lakes that are shallower and have an increased amount of nutrients. Oligotrophic lakes may become __________ as runoff brings nutrients
Areas covered with water during a portion of the year. they support many types of plants. they can be saturated or even flooded. They are very diverse. Previously destroyed, they are now being restored and protected
This has been growing exponentially, reaching 7 billion pepole in 2011, which is causing severe crowding and an increased requirement of food, energy, and space
6th mass extinction
A mass extinction event that may be going on right now because species are disappearing at a rate faster than since the last mass extinction due to habitat destruction, over-hunting, and new diseases and predators in places they shouldn't be
This was thinned due to the introduction of chlorofluorocarbons. Since their ban, it has begun to recover. It serves to filter out UV radiation which can damage DNA
The ability of carbon dioxide and water vapor to trap the reflected heat from the sun and direct it back at Earth. It protects Earth from the cold of space. Human use of fossils fuels has increased its effect causing global warming
The system of ocean currents that transports water all over the globe causing certain weather patterns. If this is disrupted by water from melting ice sheets, weather patterns will become unpredictably messed up.
The buildup of pollutants in organisms at higher trophic levels of food chains.
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