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Absolute Zero

No more energy can be removed from matter at this point.

Heat is measured in.....



The process when heat is transferred from one particle to another with direct contact.


The process when energy is transferred by electromagnetic/radiant waves.


A material that DOES NOT conduct heat well.

Water's freezing point

32 degrees Fahrenheit


A measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in an object.

Heated air moves from baseboard heaters to the rest of a room (heating a house)

An example of Convection

An example of radiation

Warming up beside a campfire

The type of energy that moving particles have

Kinetic energy

Why alcohol in a thermometer rises

thermal expansion

Sun transferring thermal energy

An example of radiation

If two glasses of water are at the same temperature,

the average KINETIC energy of the particles of water in each glass is the same.

When THERMAL energy is transferred from one object to another...

the temperature of the object giving off heat decreases

How does a thermometer work?

A liquid, often mercury or alcohol, is sealed in a long, thin glass tube. As the liquid is heated, the particles speed up and spread out. When the particles spread out, the liquid takes up more volume, and so it expands and rises in the tube. When the liquid cools, the particles come closer together, causing the liqid to contract and flow down the tube.

The reason that placing a jar under warm running water helps to loosen the lid on the jar?

Thermal expansion

How do you change the temperature on the Kelvin scale to Celcius?

Subtract 273

The more particles a substance has at a given temperature...

the more thermal energy it has

Heat transfer occurs

only from warm objects to colder ones

An example of a good conductor


If two substances have the same temperature

the substances have the same average kinetic energy

An example of conduction

The handle of a spoon in a bowl of soup becomes warm due to heat transfer

An example of conduction

When one end of an iron nail is held in a flame, the energy is transmitted along the nail

An example of an external combustion engine

A steam engine

An example of an internal combustion engine

The engine in a car

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