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Terms in this set (94)
Discrete Emotion Theory
Theory that humans experience a discrete number of emotions that are rooted in biology
Seven Primary Emotions
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Emotional feelings FOLLOW bodily arousal and come from awareness of arousal.
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Emotional feelings and bodily arousal occur SIMULTANEOUSLY.
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Emotions occur when physical arousal is labeled or interpreted, based on experience and situational cues.
Nonverbal Expression of Emotions
Importance of nonverbal cues
when a person verbalizes one thing but their body language does another.
these gestures provide a visual image to what we try to say verbally
hand gestures primarily used in deception
hand gestures with cross-cultural differences
Study of personal space
Types of personal space
public space, social space, personal space
Study of how people influence others' behavior, beliefs, and attitudes
Social Comparison Theory
We evaluate our own beliefs and performance by comparing ourselves to others. (Theory)
Upward Social Comparison
when people compare themselves to people who are better than they are
Downward Social Comparison
when people compare themselves to those who are less proficient than they are
Looking at others to determine how to think, believe, or behave
contagious outbreak of irrational behavior
enhancement of performance when others are present
we become worse at performance with others present
individuals are less productive in groups
Fundamental Attribution Error
When the observer favors internal attributions to explain other's behavior
Social factors that influence our likelihood of conformity
The tendency of people to engage in atypical behavior when stripped of their usual identities
: emphasizing group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking
Group discussion strengthens the dominant position held by individual group members
behavior intended to help others
: assuming no one in the group perceives things as we do
Diffusion of Responsibility
: The more people present, the less each person feels responsible for negative consequences
A form of special power that one is born with based on membership in a social identity
Systemic mistreatment, exploitation of a group of people, which takes a physical and psychological toll
: belief about the characteristics of members of a group applies generally to most members of the group
Ultimate Attribution Error
Negative behaviors to entire group
Positive behaviors to just luck
drawing negative conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating the evidence
tendency to favor individuals with our group over those outside
tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar
: negative behavior towards those in outside groups
need to blame other groups for misfortune
deeply rooted need to view the world as fair and all things happen for a reason
The historical and systemic construction of groups have created and perpetuated prejudice
capacity to influence
Brief and commonplace
Verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities
Can be intentional or unintentional
Communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights and insults toward marginalized groups
Interpersonal in nature
Explicit derogatory comments or verbal or nonverbal attacks.
Convey rudeness and insensitivity and demean a person's racial heritage/gender.
Exclude, negate, or nullify the experiential reality of people of color/women.
Temporary activation of behavior
: Primitive, desires. A lot of sexual drives; aggressive drives; and basic needs
Sense of morality. Conscience. Judgment over good choices.
The decision maker; the boss. Lives more in the real world.
the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology.
Confidently asserting that a theory or hypothesis is true or false even though the theory or hypothesis cannot possibly be contradicted by an observation or the outcome of any physical experiment, usually without strong evidence or good reasons.
Personality determined by: (1) genetics; and (2) contingencies in the environment
Maslow's hierarchy of need
morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts. (Maslow peak)
self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others. (Maslow 2)
friendship, family, sexual intimacy. (Maslow 3)
security of body, of employment, of resources, of morality, of the family, of health, of property. (Maslow 4)
breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion. (Maslow Base)
Big Five Model of Personality
Behaviors or mental processes (symptoms) that cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning
Between client and therapist
Based in theory
Who goes into therapy?
90% of clients who go to therapy get better, at least to an extent
How effective is therapy?
Depends more on the client and their presenting disorder
Are certain therapies more effective?
Type of therapy good for anxiety and depression
Type of therapy good with OCD, panic disorders, substance abuse, etc.
Type of therapy good with severe psychopathology-depression, schizophrenia, bipolar.
A distorted view of reality characterized by:
-Bizarre thoughts, beliefs, behaviors
Schizophrenia worldwide prevelance
Social Skills Training
Treatment for Schizophrenia
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Characterized by a splitting of the person's sense of self into two or more personalities
mild form of mania
mental illness marked by periods of great excitement, euphoria, delusions, and overactivity.
Alternating depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
characterized by persistent, excessive, and unrealistic worry about everyday things.
Persistent disturbance of eating and/or eating-related behavior that results in altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning
Restriction of energy intake
Significantly low body weight
Intense fear of gaining weight
Disturbance in perception of or experience of body weight and shape
Recurrent episodes of binge eating
Eating, within a set time, an amount of food definitely larger than what most would eat in the similar time period
Lack of self-control over eating
Inappropriate compensatory behaviors
Borderline Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affect, and marked impulsivity, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (Fatal Attraction)
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy, beginning in early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (Barney Stinson)
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of context. (Monica Gellar)
Histrionic Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (Mean Girls)
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others. (Leonardo)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence
Presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both
recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images
repetitive behaviors or mental acts the individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly
the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change.
Self Perception Theory
We acquire our attitudes by observing our own behaviors
Impression Management Theory
We don't really change our attitudes, we just say that we have so we don't appear inconsistent
considering all of the information present before you make a decision
focus on appealing aspects of argument
Central Route and Peripheral Route
Two parts of the Dual Process model
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