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Arts and Humanities
Psychology of Language - Final Exam!!!!!!!
Terms in this set (100)
What is a word?
A single distinct meaningful element of speech of writing, used with others (or sometimes alone) to form a sentence and typically shown with a space on either side when written or printed.
Factors that influence word recognition:
2. Age of acquisition
3. word length
4. neighborhood effects
5. word vs. pseudo-words vs. non words.
knight and night, weight and wait, pair and pear.
- The fisherman put his catch on the bank
- the businessman put his money in the bank
- I wouldn't bank on it if I were you
- The plane is going to band suddenly to one side
knowledge of vocabulary and general knowledge about the world
supports RAPID acquisition of knowledge that can be consciously expressed, flexible retrieved and used in novel contextx
the literal meaning of a word
all secondary implications -
nice, scary, smelly, - differ from person to person
captures the connection among various meaning associations of a word or concept
Collins and Quillian Semantic network model:
the sentence verification task -
Ideas about network: not all concepts fit into this type of hierarchical structure, category size ( animals larger than birds)
Word meaning determined not by the position of the word in a network of meaning, but by the decomposition into smaller parts of meaning.
Claim: the meaning of all words can be represented as combinations of smaller features, called semantic primitives
Mom Dad Brother Sister
Older + + (-) (-)
Pros and cons of semantic features
Pros = Make explicit how inferences based on meaning in sentence verification tasks are accomplished.
Cons= not all words are easily decomposed, what is the full list of features. ex: boxing, chess, football, solitaire.
Family resemblance models- Prototype theory =
an average member of the family/category
Doesnt work well for abstract words.
intended meaning corresponds exactly to the meanings of words
meaning goes beyond meanings of words for humor, play, and creativity
- she is a walking dictionary
- my mom is a teddy bear
- she is as tall as a giraffe
- he eats like a pig
she spilled the beans
- im on cloud nine
progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a loss of semantic memory
language is not just sounds and sentences -- its the communication of ideas.
What factors impact comprehension and memory?
1. The structure of the sentence
2. how much we know already
3. how important it is
4. Our prior knowledge
How do we remember important things better?
- Spend longer reading it if important
- BUT also spend equal time reading imporant and less important info. Our brains must identify the important things to process!
Is context important in story?
Context is only useful to comprehension and memory if it is given BEFORE the story.
to go beyond the literal meaning of a text
Three types of inferences:
1. Logical - drawn from the meaning of words, ex: Ashley is a bachelor
2. Bridging (relate new info to previous)
3. Elaborative- (pair new info with world knowledge)
Two view of inferences:
Constructionist view =
We make inferences about important info, not details
Two views of inferences
we constantly make bridging inferences, but only minimum elaborative inferences
Interpretation of when we make inferences
Elaborative and reconstructive inferences are made immediately after and when reflecting
A substitute of a word or group of words that refers to the antecedent of a referent.
need to go beyond explaining the basic building blocks of a discourse
Good model = explains memory data, inferences, and anaphora
Models of comprehension:
- Propositional network models and schema based models
- Story grammars
- Kintsch's constructive-integration model
Propositional network model:
They show how info can be connected but do not explain how we use inferences or anaphora
stories have underlying structure to them
- Story grammar models state we can draw out the structure of a narrative according to basic units.
Story gramma constituents:
2. initiating event
3. internal response
4. internal plan
6. Direct consequence
Kintsch;s construction integration model:
- Explains how we represent info in memory and integrate it into general knowledge.
4 levels of info represented -
2. local structure
4. situation model
- Process in 2 phases
- Accounts for linguistic input + listeners knowledge
Construction and integration phases
Bottom up processing!!
Construction phase = word meanings are activated, propositions are formed, inferences are made.
Integration phase = network of interrelated items is integrated into a coherent structure, any contradictions or incorrect inferences are resolved
What makes you good at comprehension:
- Able to draw more inferences from a text/conversation
- more able to integrate meaning across utterances
- less mind wandering
-suppress irrelevant info
What is a speech error and when do you hear them?
Speech error is a deviation from the apparently intended form of an utterance
Most heard when:
tired, anxious, distracted, or drunk
Dr. William Spooner:
-infamous error producer
"Give three cheers for our queer old dean"
Sigmund Freuds theory:
- freudian Slips
- errors revealed the working of the unconscious ind
(repressed thoughts, wishes, beliefs)
Speech Errors Are:
1. Are revealing
2. Errors help us see how we use language and its components- looking how things break down
3. Patterns of errors will help us formulate and critique theories of how we produce and use language.
- We produce speech through a series of five discrete levels of processing.
Processing is SERIAL.
5 levels of Garrett's model:
1. message level: we start with intention to say something particular (something about someone doing washing- up)
2. Functional level - take abstract semantic info and specify functin relations (subject - mom, verb- wipe concept, object- plate concept, time - past, #of objects - many)
3. Positional level - syntactic planning frame (det, N, V, +Past, Det, N2 +plural
4. Sound level: info translated info phonological features ( the, mother, wipes, the, plates)
Priming of structures shows that:
- we can separate structure from meaning
- this happens apart from lexical priming
- We turn thoughts underlying words into a semantic representation and then into a phonological representation.
2- step process: 1. meaning based=lexical selection. 2. Phonological based = phonological encoding
- Word concepts associated with left middle temporal gyrus.
- Accessing a words phonological code associated with Wernicke's area
-Phonological encoding and prosody associated with Broca's area
Speed studies show:
Lexical items retrieved between 150 and 225 ms
- Phonological representations retrieved between 250-330 ms
sound in words need to come out in the correct order with correct prosody.
Types of phonological errors:
1. Anticipation: take my bike - bake my bike
2. perseveration - pulled a tantrum = pulled a pantrum
3. reversals - i was spoon feeding the baby = I was foon speeding the baby
unfilled pause or silence
filled pause = um or uhhh
- Pauses most liekly before words that are less predictable in the context of the preceding
- Pauses also more likely after unpredictable words - as if speaker is checking appropriateness.
Why do we see pauses?
There are more pauses the more difficult the task.
Uh = signals short delay
Um = signals longer delay in speaking
Tip of the tongue:
extreme form of a pause -
feeling of knowing the word, but cant get it off the tongue.
- Increases with age
-more frequent with bilingual speakers
-deal speakers also have "tip of finger"
2 theories of tip of the tongue:
Partial Activation - inaccessible because the word is only weakly represented
Blocking: the word is actively suppressed by a stronger competitor
Most likely to occur on LOW frequency words with few phonological neighbors.
Language as product:
treat language as a product, or expression of peoples competence in a language. Focus is on the cognitive processes by which listeners recover, and speakers create linguistic representations.
Language as product - experimental approach =
Focus is on the individual - a single person in the act of reading or speaking
Language as action:
Treat language as a class of human actions, focus is on how people simultaneously manage speaking and listening to use language in face to face conversations, on the phone, court trials, or talking to oneself.
Language as action- experimental approach:
Focus is on partners - multiple participants engaged in interactive conversation using natural tasks with well-defined behavioral goals.
Austin - 3 forces possessed by a sentence:
1. Locutionary force - literal meaning (do u have ability to pass salt?)
2. illocutionary force - what speaker is trying to get done with the utterance ( I am requesting that you pass the salt)
3. perlocutionary force- effect utterance has on the actions and beliefs of listeners ( my food needs seasoning)
speech acts can be categorized:
1. Representative - fact - I ride a bike
2. Directive - getting listener to do something - do u ride a bike?
3. Commissive: speaker commits to future action - if you ride with me, Ill give u $5
4. expressive - speaker reveals psychological state - Im sorry to hear you dont like to ride a bike.
5. Declarative - speaker brings new state of affairs -- we are no longer friends cause u dont ride a bike.
conventional = derived from what is literally said
conversational = derived form knowledge of the application of the cooperative principle in addition to what is literally meant
maxims of conversation -
quantity - be as informative is required, dont give too much
quality - be truthful
relation - be relevant
manner - be clear
communication is governed by social conventions.
Converge in conversation:
- Get in synch become more like our conversational partner across -
takes as a whole the internal and external resources and processes that are tied together in the ongoing organization of particular activities as people word to achieve particular goals
results in convergence
is distributed across people, resources and time.
Gesture is ubiquitous in communication; when people speak, they gesture.
Co- speech gesture is evident across:
Languages, cultures, and speakers of all ages
- blind speakers gesture to blind listeners
-speakers gesture when lister isnt present
Co-speech gesture roles and jobs:
-Gesture assists in transmission of ideas from a speaker to a listener
- provides info to the listener about the speakers though
-reveals info that is often not found in speech; thus gesture supplements speech
-interestingly, speakers and listeners tend to underreport gesture suggesting that its influence is often below awareness.
Growth point theory:
-gesture provides a different representation format
-gesture conveys information that is visual, motor, spatial
Information packaging hypothesis:
-gesture helps speakers organize and package visual spatial info so it is comparable to speech
-gestures, which are individual actions in space, help speakers to select and organize visual-spatial info that is appropriate for what is in speech
Lexical gesture process model:
gesture primes lexical items, increasing their activation and making them easier to access.
- when speakers told not to gesture, they become more dysfluent
Gesture as simulated action:
Speakers naturally activate simulations of actions and perceptual states when they produce speech
-these simulations active motor and premotor cortex responsible for producing movements
-if level of motor activation exceeds a pre-set threshold then the speaker produces over motor movements
FACTS SO FAR ABOUT GESTURE:
-Gesture plays a role in language production
-gesture communicates info not found in speech
-speech and gesture form an integrated system
-gesturing may guide speech production
-gesturing facilitates lexical access
-gestures aid in convening motor info
Why do we gesture? insights from comprehension ;
speakers gesture more when gestures are visible
- gesture rate does not decline when speaking to different listeners
-some info is communicated uniquely in gesture and not speech
-some info communicated in gesture supplements info
Gesture in language learning:
-gesture precedes speech and may play a role in linguistic development-children begin to gesture between 8-12 months, can point to object before producing first word, and children can combine speech and gesture.
- Gestures don't just precede language development they predict it: can predict which lexical items enter vocab by looking at objects child indicted with gestures months earlier, can predict onset of first two word utterance by onset of gesture speech combination
Gestures and learning:
-gesture is important for acquiring new knowledge
-teachers gestures help students learn, especially when gesture and speech emphasize different info
-students use of gesture helps them learn
- gestures often reflect emerging knowledge, before it can be put in speech
gesture and cognition:
the gestures we produce reflect our prior experience
- the gestures we see others produce affect our later actions
Gestures and the brain:
-implications for understanding the instantiation of gesture in the brain, and as it relates to speech, but also for various types of disordered populations
Declaratie memory - facts and events- patients with amnesia
Procedural memory- skills, habits, abilities, patients with PD
Restults from patients with procedural memory:
- Those with intact procedural memory : gesture production reflects prior experience
- Those with intact procedural memory - later actions were affected by the gestures they saw
- these patters
How do we study the brain - Phrenology:
bumps on hear determine mental abilities and personality traits
How we study the brain- lesion method:
Studying the behavior of brain damage patients and determining the site of the damage in the postmortem analysis
-use focally brain damage to probe the systems supporting behavior and cognition
-tests the hypothesis that a particular brain region plays a role as a component of a system supporting a specific normal operation
Study of people with aphasia:
aphasia- language problems as a result of brain damage
Area of the frontal lobe!!!
-critical for language production
- damage to this region causes expressive aphasia or broca's aphasia
-can have difficult performing complete sentences
-often say something that does not resemble a sentence
Area of the temporal lobe!!!
-critical for language comprehension
-damage to this caues receptive aphasia or wernickes aphasia
- poor auditory processing
Speech and word perception/recognition:
language unfolds over time
- analysis by synthesis/motor theory= recognize speech by drawing on knowledge of speech perception
Cohort model- as speech unfolds, we access semantic knowledge and generate a cohort of possible targets
Semantics and vmPFC:
-false memory effect - study a lost of words (cold, blizzard winter) at test, common to see non-studies intrusions (snow)- spreading activation
vmPFC= an area of the brain thought to be important for schemas (congruent/incongruent)
What is aphasia:
Caused by damagae to the left perisylvian region
a primary language disorder - impaired production and comprehension of language are the main deficits, separate from speech or thought.
Caused by acquired brain damage - acquired in adulthood, typically due to a stoke in the left hemispere
a sudden interruption in the blood supply of the brain - due to a blocked of ruptured blood vessel.
80% of stokes are ischemic stoke- caused by block blood vessel and result in deprivation of blood and oxygen
20% of strokes - hemorrhagic - due to congenital blood vessel deformation
damage in right hemisphere = cognitive-communication disorder
damage in left hemisphere - aphasia- language disorder
Aphasia Syndromes - nonfluent aphasias=
Broca's aphasia: difficulty producing complete grammatical sentences, often have motor speech impairments, and comprehend relatively well.
Global aphasia: production limited to a few words, often have motor speech impairments, poor comprehension
Aphasia syndromes - Fluent aphasia:
Wenicke's aphasia: effortless, grammatical speech, poor comprehension
Anomic aphasia: fluent and grammatical speech, disrupted by word-finding problems, and comprehension relatively good.
common features of aphasia:
1. multimodality impairment- impairment in listening, speaking, reading, and writing
2. anomia - word-finding problems
3. better communication than language - communication intention, non-verbal communication skills
Left and right hemisphere of the brain functions:
Left (dominant)- language, math skills, auditory processing, temporal processing, analytical skills
Right (silent)- music, emotion, art, geometry, visual processing, spatial processing, integrative skills
The Wada test:
Classic method of localizing language and other lateralized function in the brain, making one hemisphere of brain fall asleep at a time, and doing behavioral tests.
Right hemisphere dysfunction (RHD)-
Focal damage= primarily a stoke, or right sided head trauma or tumors
Diffuse damage - traumatic brain injury, alzheimers
Visual perceptual deficits in RHD:
1.visual agnosia: recognizing objects
2. left homonymous hemianopia: visual field cut on left side of space
3. left neglect: lack of attention to the left side of speech
Cognitive deficits in RHD:
attention, awareness: staying on task, ignoring distractions,
Cognitive deficits in RHD2:
1. memory, especially short term - recalling 3 items after 5 min delay
2. how to test for prospective memory: self report, survey
3. Possible tasks: return this item to me when you leave, do something when walk out door,
Cognitive deficits in RHD3:
1. problem solving, judgement,
3. reasoning, abstract thinking
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE):
CTE is a form of progressive neurological illness acquired from repeated blows to the head.
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