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AP Human Geography~ Ch. 1 Basic Concepts
Terms in this set (78)
Composed of nonliving or inorganic matter.
The thin layer of gases surrounding Earth.
All living organisms on Earth, including plants and animals, as well as microorganisms.
composed of living organisms
science or art of making maps
The long-term average weather condition at a particular location.
The spread of something over a given area.
Relationships among people nd objects across the barrier of space
The sustainable management of a natural resource.
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, material norms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition.
the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
The scientific study of ecosystems
A group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres with which they interact.
A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a an addictive process.
(or uniform or homogeneous region) an area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
(or nodal region) An area organized around a node or focal point
Geographic Information Science (GIScience)
The development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through satellite and other electronic information technologies
Geographic Information System (GIS)
a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
The time in the zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0° longitude.
The region from which innovative ideas originate
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
All of the water on or near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross this heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0°).
Earth's crust and a portion of the upper mantle directly below the crust.
The position of anything on Earth's surface
Numbering system used to indicate location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of prime meridian (0°)
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.
The relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature of Earth's surface.
A representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
A chain of communication that connects places.
Something produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible.
The meridian, designed at 0° longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map
An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Something produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humans
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole.
The physical character of a place
The location of a place relative to another place
The physical gap or interval between two objects
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
The spread of an underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
The use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future.
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
Vernacular Region (or Perceptual Region)
An area that people believe exist as part of their cultural identity.
The process of changes in culture that result from the meeting of two groups, each of which retains distinct culture features.
The process by which a groups cultural features are altered to resemble those of another more dominant group.
The study of psychological basis for individual human actions in space.
Scientific research by amateur scientists.
Identification and storage of a piece of information by its precise latitude and longitude coordinates.
A map that overlays data from one source on top of a map provided by a mapping service.
Participatory GIS (PGIS)
Community-based mapping, representing local knowledge and information.
The spread of a feature or trend though bodily movement of people from one place to another.
The study of space as the product of ideologies or value systems of ruling elites.
The relationship between the distribution of one feature and the distribution of another feature.
The combining of elements of two groups into a new cultural feature.
Volunteered geographic information (VGI)
Creation and dissemination of geographic data contributed voluntarily and for free by individuals.
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