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Learning and Memory Final
Terms in this set (56)
Copying that involves reproducing motor acts is called?
The failure to extinguish a conditioned response is known as?
______ neurons respond during both performance of an action and during visual observations of that same action.
What is the MOST extensively studied form of vocal learning?
song learning in birds
What is the phenomenon in which exposure to an uncontrollable punisher reduces the chance that an organism will try to make an avoidance response?
Strong and vivid memories for highly emotional events are called?
Children with ASD...?
have problems with perspective taking
A classical conditioning explanation for PTSD suggests that PTSD patients?
take longer to extinguish a CR
The inborn tendency to react emotionally to stimuli that indicate emotion in other members of one's species is called?
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion?
the bodily responses associated with an emotion lead to the conscious feeling of that emotion
High levels of stress hormones?
can cause cell death in the hippocampus
Studies of copying in humans and chimpanzees have shown that ______ copy the details of actions modeled by an adult human.
chimpanzees and human children
The tendency to adopt the behavior of the group is known as?
The two-action test involves training two animals to perform?
two different actions, leading to the same outcome
The fear response involves _____ reactions.
a combination of physiological, motor, and conscious
The body changes that occur during arousal are mediated by the?
automatic nervous system
An excessive and irrational fear of an object, place, or situation is called?
Which of the following is an example of mood congruency of memory?
if you are upset, you remember unpleasant material better than pleasant material
The only mammals other than humans that can learn to sing a song by hearing it are?
Which part of the brain is often considered to be the "sensory gateway to the brain?"
When an individual learns an emotional response after observing it in others, this is known as?
The Prefrontal Cortex
-prominent role in working memory function
---> info passes through short term/working memory to get to long term
Which part of the brain facilitates long term memory?
the prefrontal cortex
Does the size of the PFC matter?
mammals with better working memory function have larger PFC areas
Frontal Cortex Damage
humans with damage to the frontal cortex can often have dysexecutive syndrome
What is dysexecutive syndrome?
decrease in working memory load and control
True or False: Subsequent work has shown that the lateral prefrontal cortex is most responsible for working memory
What is emotion?
overt behaviors, physiological response, conscious feelings
Does emotion impact behavior? Is it important?
yes and YES
True or False: Behaviorism only cares about external, explicit behaviors you can observe
True or False: Cognitive psychology stressed the importance of internal mechanisms like attention, memory
a strong physiological response that occurs over a brief period of time
a mild physiological response that occurs over longer stretches of time
Why would these (mood/emotion) subject areas be difficult to study?
we experience these things subjectively; hard to quantify or measure
Autonomic Nervous System
physiological components of emotion are mediated by this area
Fight or Flight Response
activation of the sympathetic nervous system
-releases stress horomones
Multiple Theories of Emotion
03. Two-Factor (Shacter two-factor)
physiological and concious components are actually independent
-running elevates heart rate, but it doesn't cause fear
emotions start with a physiological response
-central nervous system perceives this, creating conscious emotional feelings
arousal and context are perceived by the central nervous system to generates conscious feelings
Do nonhumans feel emotions?
casually, we can observe behaviors that seem consistent with out expectations of emotion
True or False: It is unlikely that nonhuman would be absent of emotions when they too have an automatic nervous system equipped with similar hormones.
a neutral stimulus paired with a painful stimulus
-a tone + a foot shock
-helps protect us/keeps us safe
-*most popular paradigm for studying emotion
engine light, awful sound, mechanic example
-Stimulus: engine light turns on
-Response: take it to a mechanic
-Neg. Reinforcement: avoid/escape the awful sound
even when unwanted stimulus is avoidable, don't do anything to avoid it
Learned Helplessness in People
-standardized test example
-Seligman thinks this is a model for depression
depending on our mood, we remember sad/happy things better
Can emotions enhance memory?
-emotional components of stories are often better remembered?
-gives the material important
Emotions and Memory: Delay
we remember the emotional content of the story better
suggest that emotion can greatly increase memory encoding
-also susceptible to misattribution and interference as other episodic memories
-involved in many different areas
-The central nucleus of the amygdala organizes the expression of emotional responses.
-The lateral amygdala collects inputs and seems to encode emotional relevance of stimuli.
-The basolateral amygdala may modulate memory to increase storage of emotional memories.
-Fearful stimulus is slowly introduced and paired with relaxation techniques; gradual steps
-Patient is put in very fearful circumstances for an extended period of time
Hippocampus in Memory
-doesn't involve fear conditioning
-encodes the context of the surrounding
-damage can cause changes in emotional regulation
-some people show flattened affect/disproportional, heightened emotion
helps with social cues
-damage can impair the extinction of fear responses
represent a neural component of social memory, linking observed behaviors with motor outputs
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