AP Human Geography~ Ch. 9 Food and Agriculture
Terms in this set (44)
commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
the deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Aquaculture (or aquafarming)
the cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions.
Cereal Grain (or cereal)
a grass that yields grain for food.
agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
any plant gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil.
degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions such as excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. Also known as semiarid land degradation.
Dietary Energy Consumption
the amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in kilocalories (calories in the United States).
harvesting twice a year from the same field.
physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
seed of a cereal grass.
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
the area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
the Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Prime Agricultural Land
the most productive farmland.
a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
a system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
a flooded field for growing rice.
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because "truck" was a Middle English word meaning "bartering" or "exchange of commodities."
dietary energy consumption that is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity.
rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
a form of commercial agriculture that specializes in the production of mile and other dairy products.
the capture of wild fish and other seafood living in the waters.
Genetically modified organism (GMO)
a living organism that processes a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
Mixed crop and livestock farming
commercial farming where most of the crops are fed to animals rather than consumed directly humans.
a farming practice that leaves all of the soil undisturbed and the entire residue of the previous year's harvest left untouched on the fields.
capturing fish faster than they can reproduce
Von Thunen model
used by geographers to explain the important relationship between the proximity a farm has to market and the crops grown on the farm. The farmers must consider the types of animals and crops to grow by evaluating the location of the market they are targeting in order to obtain the largest profit.
all techniques that use living organisms or substances from organisms to produce or alter a product, cause changes in plants or animals, or develop microorganisms for specific purposes.
the cultivation or growth of a single crop or organism especially on agricultural or forest land
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cocoa, coffee, and tobacco.
series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is on world market
a factory-like farm devoted to either livestock fattening or dairying
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