The potential for conflict between Europeans and the indigenous people in North America stemmed in part from different values concerning the:
A)treatment of children.
B)relationship to the environment.
C)adoption of a sedentary versus a nomadic lifestyle.
D)role of technology in man's existence.
E)organization of family life.
As a result of the development of agriculture in the Americas, the members of native tribes:
A)gave up intertribal feuding and became pacifists.
B)engaged solely in agricultural tasks.
C)lost faith in religious leaders.
D)abandoned regional trading networks.
E)grew in numbers and founded separate societies.
In contrast to the Europeans, most natives of North America believed that land serves as the basis for:
C)independence and personal identity.
The Pueblo people of the American Southwest, encountered by the Spanish in the 1540s:
A)used irrigation canals, dams, and hillside terracing to water their arid maize fields.
B)made their clothing and utensils from buffalo hides and bones.
C)lived in tepees and engaged in a nomadic lifestyle.
D)built ceremonial mounds on which to worship their gods.
E)failed to develop agricultural techniques suitable for their arid environment.
In Cahokia, the center of a vast Mississippi culture reaching its peak around 1200 C.E., Native Americans:
A)developed an urban center with at least 20,000 inhabitants.
B)depended upon hunting and fishing for survival.
C)constructed a gigantic stone temple.
D)traded only locally.
E)all of the above
Which of the following characteristics of a matrilineal tribe in North America is NOT accurate?
A)divorce as the woman's prerogative
B)sharing of powers in the tribal economy
C)political deliberation and decision-making by females
D)senior women designating the men who would deliberate and make decisions
E)family membership determined through the female line
Population growth and cultural development in West Africa:
A)required isolation from other cultures.
B)resulted from European influence.
C)guarded against foreign invasions and influences.
D)depended upon ecological conditions and geography.
E)progressed in regular and set patterns.
West Africans shared religious beliefs that rejected:
B)the role of ancestors as mediators to the spiritual world.
C)the existence of spirits in nature.
D)the concept of a Supreme Creator.
E)none of the above
All of the following factors contributed to the rise of modern Europe EXCEPT the:
A)devastation of the population by the Black Death.
B)rediscovery of ancient knowledge.
C)rise of kings who reasserted their political authority and united their realms.
D)emergence of powerful feudal lords.
E)revival of long-distance trade.
According to the Magna Carta presented by members of the English aristocracy to their king in 1215, the:
A)King of England would have all the powers of his European counterparts.
B)members of Parliament would sit as a religious tribunal.
C)members of Parliament would be popularly elected.
D)members of Parliament would meet regularly to pass money bills.
E)King of England would rule by "divine right."
Rather than personal wealth, natives of communal American societies valued:
A)size of individual landholdings.
E)community and personal valor.
In contrast to the fate of Africans enslaved in the Americas, the slaves in West African societies:
A)often did not suffer a permanently servile condition.
B)transferred slave status automatically to their children.
C)remained uneducated and unwed.
D)lost all legal rights and opportunities for economic advancement.
E)worked harder and longer than their masters.
Arab merchants who lived in Ghana:
A)introduced Ghanaians to Arabic ideas about religion and government.
B)slowly became assimilated into the local culture and lost their Arab identity.
C)gave up their belief in Islam and converted to the local religion.
D)failed to make an impact on the region because they segregated themselves.
E)faced extreme hostility because of their religious beliefs.
At the time of early contact with Europeans, Africa was a continent marked by:
A)backward and ignorant peoples.
B)a fervent belief in Buddhism.
C)sparse and undeveloped settlements.
D)primitive social organizations.
E)diverse and elaborate cultures.
Archaeological studies of the Mound Builders suggest that Native American:
A)culture remained static for thousands of years before Europeans arrived.
B)religion had been influenced by the ancient Egyptians.
C)societies participated in a vast trading network that linked villages across the continent.
D)loss of population and land accompanying the western migration of Europeans was inevitable.
E)settlements of the Atlantic seaboard represented the highest levels of pre-Colombian development.
The movement toward more intensive and profitable agriculture in the sixteenth century:
A)strengthened regional cultures and leadership in Spain.
B)relieved the pressures of unemployment and poverty in England.
C)marked the first step toward industrial development in England.
D)led to a desire among French noblemen to maximize profits.
E)led to a less stratified society in England.
The expansionist impulse of European monarchs in the latter fifteenth century was:
A)nourished by population decline and civil disorder.
B)disrupted by internal wars between bickering nobles.
C)temporarily subdued by the growth of Renaissance culture.
D)motivated by an increased interest in religion.
E)motivated by a desire to bypass Muslim merchants in trade with Asia and Africa.
"European colonizers in North America also found disturbing the matrilineal organization of many tribal societies." Matrilineal organization occurs when:
A)women hold the highest positions in the religious structure.
B)women make all the political and economic decisions for the group.
C)women perform the marriages in a society.
D)men have complete power over women, including the ability to give them away as slaves or sacrificial victims.
E)family membership is determined by the female, rather than male line.
"By the time the Spanish arrived in the 1540s, the indigenous Pueblo people were using irrigation canals." Indigenous people refers to those who:
A)live naturally in an area.
B)resist capture or control by others.
C)cleverly devise practical solutions.
D)react against something unjust or unworthy.
E)are foreign invaders to a region.
"Ushering in a new, more secular age, the Renaissance...encouraged freedom of thought...." A secular age is one that is:
A)parochial or sectarian in its views.
C)worldly rather than spiritual.
D)separated or isolated from others.
E)free from doubt or fear.
While Spain began to exert its power on the other side of the Atlantic, the Portuguese:
A)decided to take a leading role in European affairs.
B)concentrated on spreading their power to Africa and East Asia.
C)sought to conquer France, Russia, and England.
D)needed to address severe economic problems at home.
E)entered a race with Spain for control of the Americas.
Spanish and Portuguese explorations of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries:
A)prompted immediate competition from England and France.
B)weakened the imperial ambitions of Spain and Portugal.
C)shifted commercial power from Mediterranean ports to those of the Atlantic.
D)retarded the growth of western European economies.
E)helped soothe the Catholic-Protestant division within Christianity.
Protestantism did not gain an early foothold in the Americas because:
A)Catholic missionaries were more daring than Protestant missionaries and bravely faced dangers Protestants refused to confront.
B)Protestants were more interested in earning profits than in converting souls.
C)Protestants focused on sending missions to Africa rather than the Americas.
D)nations most affected by the Reformation entered overseas exploration later than Spain and Portugal.
E)all of the above
What factor(s) did NOT contribute to the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires?
A)alliance with dissident natives
B)use of horses
D)superior numbers and commitment
The population of the Americas dramatically declined following the arrival of Europeans primarily because of the:
A)loss of morale and sense of hopelessness that pervaded Native American societies.
B)lack of natural immunity among Native Americans to European diseases.
C)the inability of Native Americans to reproduce because of weak genes.
D)policy of systematic genocide employed by European explorers toward Native Americans.
E)enslavement and brutal treatment of Native Americans by Europeans.
American exploration changed European diets by introducing Europeans to:
B)maize and potatoes.
E)all of the above
The consequences of sugar production in the New World included:
A)stimulating the transport of millions of African slaves.
B)revolutionizing European tastes.
D)the production of nearly 6 million pounds annually by 1570.
E)all of the above
The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England in 1588:
A)solidified Protestantism in England.
B)brought a temporary stalemate in European religious wars.
C)increased English interest in overseas exploration and colonization.
D)fanned a nationalistic spirit in England.
E)all of the above
England initially became interested in the western Atlantic for:
E)all of the above
English colonizing ventures in the New World differed from previous Spanish and Portuguese efforts in that English attempts were:
A)immediate and major successes.
B)strictly coordinated and governed by the Crown.
C)met with little or no native resistance.
D)organized by Protestant missionary groups.
E)privately organized and financed.
A negative image of Native Americans among English settlers:
A)justified their claim that natives had disqualified themselves as rightful owners of the land.
B)resulted from their lack of information about indigenous peoples of the Americas.
C)spurred their desire to civilize and convert the natives to Christianity.
D)caused traders to embark on a campaign to improve Anglo-Indian relations.
E)explained for them the easy conquest of the natives by the Spanish.
The least likely destination of European slave traders in the seventeenth century would have been:
B)the West Indies.
D)the Mediterranean world.
The most important factors for increasing the African slave trade was a(n):
A)need for the use of African slave labor in the silver mines of Mexico.
B)rise in African population.
C)desire to take control of African gold.
D)need for labor on sugar plantations.
E)interest in punishing Muslims for their occupation of Spain.
"The countries most affected by the Reformation...." The Reformation was a(n):
A)social movement to improve the lives of peasants and poor laborers.
B)an artistic movement meant to revolutionize the production of art.
C)political movement to reduce the power of monarchs.
D)religious movement that criticized the Catholic faith.
E)economic movement to introduce new capitalist ideas.
The organizers of the Jamestown colony were motivated primarily by a desire to:
A)pursue military adventures against the Spanish.
B)earn profits by discovering minerals and developing a fur trade with Indians.
C)establish a permanent colony that would exist in harmony with the Native Americans.
D)spread Christian religion to native peoples.
E)escape political oppression and religious persecution
The Virginia Company attracted new settlers to its colony after 1609 by:
A)promising free land at the end of seven years' labor for the company.
B)paying significantly higher wages than those prevailing throughout Europe.
C)offering them a share of the company's profits.
D)offering them free slaves.
E)advertising the benefits of Virginia's healthy environment and comfortable living conditions.
The economic salvation for the Virginia colony proved to be the:
A)mining of silver.
B)invention of the cotton gin.
C)discovery of gems.
D)trade with the Powhatan Indians.
E)cultivation of tobacco.
The primary cause for continuing conflicts between English colonists and Native Americans in Virginia was the:
A)the colonists' alliance with the Iroquois confederacy.
B)organization of Chesapeake tribes by the proud and talented leader Opechancanough.
C)refusal of Powhatan to allow his daughter Pocahontas to marry planter John Rolfe.
D)steady encroachment by land-hungry settlers on Indian territories.
E)English murder of Nemattanew, a Powhatan war captain and religious prophet.
Chesapeake colonists of the seventeenth century:
A)quickly established churches and schools.
B)typically enjoyed long and happy marriages.
C)built large and gracious plantation homes.
D)faced a strong possibility of dying from disease.
E)grew rice with the help of slave labor.
In response to Bacon's Rebellion, Governor Berkeley of Virginia:
A)honored Bacon and his followers as heroes.
B)declared Bacon a rebel and ordered him arrested.
C)refused the offer of aid from royal troops in England.
D)pardoned the rebel leaders upon their surrender.
E)sanctioned the attacks by Bacon against hostile Indians.
Which of the following factors did NOT contribute to the outbreak of Bacon's Rebellion?
B)declining tobacco prices
C)colonial mistreatment of the Indians
D)an unresponsive government
E)lack of opportunity
Life in the southern colonies remained volatile in the late seventeenth century mainly because of a lack of:
The southern transition to black slave labor in the last quarter of the seventeenth century might be explained by the:
A)difficulty in subjugating Native Americans to use as a labor force.
B)increasing availability and falling prices of black slaves.
C)growing population of landless and potentially rebellious former white servants.
D)decreasing numbers of white Europeans willing to enter indentured servitude.
E)all of the above
The Puritans of England:
A)welcomed changes sparked by England's accelerating commercial activity.
B)wanted to do away with traditional restraints.
C)shunned the notions of social reform and missionary activity.
D)wished to rid the Church of England of all Catholic beliefs and practices.
E)loyally supported the rule of King Charles I.
Puritans decided to emigrate from England during the 1630s because of:
E)all of the above
Unlike the Puritans, the Pilgrims:
A)wished to rejoin the Catholic Church.
B)expected to convert a sinful world.
C)preferred to settle in Holland rather than America.
D)separated from the Church of England.
E)squabbled with local Indians.
In contrast to Virginia, the colony of Massachusetts Bay thrived almost from the beginning because the early Puritan settlers:
A)chose a location uninhabited by hostile Indians.
B)came as freemen in families, and possessed a strong work ethic and valuable skills.
C)arrived as young, single, and healthy males unburdened by family commitments.
D)founded a colony in a warm land with good soil.
E)were less educated and thus less easily dissatisfied.
By the early seventeenth century, the French:
A)befriended the Iroquois in local Indian wars.
B)developed a lucrative trade in cattle.
C)developed a fur trade in Canada.
D)rapidly populated the province of Quebec.
E)became preoccupied with internal struggles.
The Dutch colony of New Netherland:
A)had to rely upon English merchants for overseas trade.
B)had an alliance with the Huron Indians.
C)was blocked from inland trade by hostile Iroquois Indians.
D)became the colony of New York following English takeover in 1664.
E)restricted all newcomers to membership in the Dutch Reformed Calvinist Church
In his colony, William Penn intended to:
A)make an asylum for the persecuted and a refuge from arbitrary state power.
B)nurture a social and religious homogeneity.
C)guard against the anarchy of popular rule.
D)use slave labor on tobacco plantations.
E)exploit the region's rich natural resources.
Slavery never became the foundation of the northern colonial work force because:
A)colonists there viewed slavery as immoral.
B)labor-intensive crops would not grow in colder climates.
C)Africans could not survive in cold climates.
D)New England merchants refused to participate in the international slave trade.
E)it proved impossible to train slaves as domestic servants or artisans.
The architects of the Carolina colony:
A)wished to pursue radical social experiments begun during the English civil war.
B)wanted to establish Puritanism as the official religion of the colony.
C)commissioned the capture of Indians for sale as slaves in New England and the West Indies.
D)designed the most democratic of all the colonial governments.
E)intended to create a hereditary aristocracy of wealthy manor lords.
New Englanders built more private and comfortable houses at an earlier stage than colonists in the Chesapeake because of:
A)their materialistic religious beliefs.
B)the stunted and unstable family life in New England.
C)the unhealthy climate and environment in New England.
D)the less worldly and materialistic attitudes of Southerners.
E)the need of Southerners to invest available capital in labor.
Which of the following factors was most instrumental in securing victory for the New England colonists in King Philip's War?
A)efficient mobilization of colonial manpower and supplies
B)political cohesion among the colonies
C)English soldiers sent to protect the Puritans
D)conversion of King Philip to Christianity
E)internal problems for the Indians, such as food shortages, disease, and defections
The root cause of King Philip's War in New England stemmed from the anger of young Wampanoags at the colonists':
A)alliance with their hated enemies, the Narragansetts.
B)insistence that they practice Christianity.
C)unwillingness to admit Native Americans to white churches and colleges.
D)attacks on their land base and political sovereignty.
E)refusal to sell them guns and supplies.
Which of the following elements contributed to the cohesion of Puritan village life in New England?
A)substantial investments in bound labor
B)the absence of women and children
C)the cold and rainy weather
D)an unusual stress on literacy and education
E)all of the above
Puritan minister Roger Williams supported:
A)government officials' interference in religious affairs.
B)colonial usurpation of Indian lands.
C)mandatory church attendance for all colonists.
D)complete separation of church and state.
E)New England's affiliation with the Church of England.
William Penn believed that the Indians should be:
A)removed forcibly from his colony.
B)freely engaged in trade.
C)sold into slavery.
D)compensated for their land.
E)forced to convert to Christianity.
The Pueblo were pushed to the point of revolt when the Spaniards began to:
A)assault their religion by seizing their kivas.
B)burn down their villages.
C)take more and more of their land.
D)steal their crops.
E)use them as conscripted labor.
According to the theory of mercantilism, colonies existed primarily to:
A)expand trade with other nations.
B)produce manufactured goods.
C)recruit foreign workers.
D)provide slaves for European nations.
E)provide foodstuffs and raw materials.
The Navigation Act of 1660:
A)promoted colonial trade by removing English duties on enumerated articles.
B)created stringent enforcement mechanisms by which England regulated colonial trade.
C)allowed expanded exports of colonial tobacco to European markets.
D)listed colonial products that could be shipped only to England or to other English colonies.
E)led to the increased production of cotton in the colonies.
After 1675, England enacted stricter imperial controls because (of):
A)the need of British merchants for increased efficiency in trade.
B)the colonists wanted to have closer economic ties with England.
C)the demands of Parliament for greater colonial accountability.
D)her desire to regulate the internal affairs of overseas colonies.
E)the complications of international competition and war.
Governor Edmund Andros of the Dominion of New England antagonized colonists by:
A)supporting the land claims of local Indians.
B)suppressing religious dissent.
C)extending local control of government.
D)supporting the overthrow of King James II.
E)challenging the validity of all land titles.
Leisler's Rebellion in New York City reflected the:
A)unsuccessful attempt by conservatives to stem the power of the "rabble."
B)resentment of lower-class Dutch residents toward the town's English elite.
C)anger of the English over the Dutch residents' treatment of Native Americans.
D)desire by Americans for more consistent English regulations.
E)acceptance by city leaders of the right of ordinary people to exercise political power.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 resulted in:
A)Catholic domination of the English government.
B)the establishment of religious freedom throughout the colonies.
C)lasting political changes to several colonies.
D)a bloody war between England and the Netherlands.
E)the widespread notion that kings ruled by a God-given "divine right."
The colonial elite tried to foster social and economic stability by the:
A)extension of voting rights.
B)opening of new lands and economic opportunities.
C)maintenance of a highly stratified society.
D)opposition to the use of slave labor.
E)protection of religious freedom.
"The Puritans set about building their utopia...." A utopia is a(n):
A)condition of practical usefulness.
B)place in New England.
C)matter of pressing concern or urgency.
D)ideal of social or political perfection.
E)promising enterprise or prospect.
New Englanders opted for more of a mixed economy than settlers in the middle or southern colonies because in New England:
A)availability and productivity of land was limited.
B)Puritans forbade the buying of slaves.
C)cultivation of cereal crops was too labor intensive.
D)Puritans believed in the Protestant work ethic.
E)Native Americans had already cleared and used the land.
Colonial America in the first half of the eighteenth century experienced:
A)loss of local autonomy.
B)a decline in population and economic development.
C)a narrowing of class differences.
D)population growth and economic development.
E)continual declines in church membership.
Compared to her English counterpart, the eighteenth-century northern colonial woman:
A)pursued a daily routine less likely to overlap that of her husband's.
B)worked in factories and mills rather than on farms.
C)enjoyed broader legal and property rights.
D)married at an older age and bore fewer children.
E)received fewer chances to marry if divorced or widowed.
The Chesapeake colonies of the early eighteenth century witnessed:
A)the emergence of a planter gentry as political and social leaders.
B)virtual universal ownership of land and slaves.
C)a concerted effort by English missionaries to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
D)steady replacement of slave laborers by indentured servants.
E)increasing profitability of, and thus reliance upon, tobacco cultivation.
By the 1740s, the vast majority of inhabitants along the coast of South Carolina consisted of:
C)poor German and Scots-Irish immigrants.
The adoption of slave codes in the English colonies:
A)began with the earliest days of colonization.
B)sparked a wave of violent black rebellions.
C)restrained the master's freedom in dealing with slave property.
D)caused the supply of African slaves to dry up.
E)restricted the lives of slaves.
Which of the following factors helped temper rebellion and offer comfort to colonial slaves?
A)kind treatment from masters
B)interracial liaisons and marriages
C)good food and healthy environments
D)close relationships with their white masters
E)religion and family life
The typical master in colonial America wished to convert the slave into a(n):
A)mindless drudge who obeyed every command.
B)devoted Christian who ministered to others.
C)educated and skilled producer of goods.
D)independent worker who increased profits.
E)loving and faithful member of the plantation family.
France's interior empire in North America:
A)was composed of large tobacco plantations.
B)created an ineffective shield against British expansion.
C)had many settlements that were mixed-race communities.
D)stressed farming more than trading, missionizing, or military efforts.
E)contained no African slaves.
As a result of extensive contact with European colonizers during the early eighteenth century, Native American tribes of the interior:
A)altered patterns of tribal life and leadership.
B)abandoned hunting for subsistence agriculture.
C)refused to trade furs for alcohol, guns, or other European goods.
D)adopted the white man's culture and religion.
E)benefitted from commercial trade and development.
The advent of "modern" life occurred first in the seaboard centers of colonial America, including the transition from a:
A)factory to a skilled craftsman's production of goods.
B)barter to a commercial economy.
C)secular to a religious society.
D)social order based on achievement to one based on status.
E)contentious to a deferential politics.
Colonial merchants of the early eighteenth century:
A)engaged in the tasks of shipping and distributional services only.
B)integrated American producers and consumers in the Atlantic basin trading system.
C)wished only to trade in the local barter economy.
D)exported luxury and manufactured goods to Europe, Africa, and the West Indies.
E)typically imported more goods than Americans desired or could use.
For urban artisans in colonial America:
A)New England paid the highest wages.
B)the formation of unions secured their independence.
C)a major goal was economic independence.
D)work patterns proved regular and constant.
E)urban growth and economic expansion guaranteed success.
In contrast to conditions in the English colonies, life in New Spain was characterized by greater:
A)sharing of profits with natives.
C)production of cash crops.
The social structure of American colonial cities from 1690 to 1770 was influenced by:
A)an absence of urban poverty.
B)the end of colonial warfare.
C)a belief in socialism and the equality of man.
D)steadily declining property values and taxes.
E)an increasing gap between the wealthy and the poor.
According to the entrepreneurial ethos, government would provide for the general welfare by:
A)regulating prices and wages.
B)setting quality controls.
C)promoting individual competition.
D)enforcing English law.
E)supervising public markets.
All of the following represent theories of Enlightenment thinkers EXCEPT the notion that:
A)systematic investigation would unlock the secrets of the physical universe.
B)"natural laws" and "natural" human rights should provide the foundation for human relationships.
C)man could use his reason and thus acquire knowledge.
D)scientific laws might be applied to human institutions in order to improve society.
E)God predetermined the contents of the human mind.
Perhaps the most pressing problem facing clergymen in the early eighteenth century and a cause for the Great Awakening was the:
A)scarcity of trained ministers.
B)independent attitudes of congregations.
C)discrimination against non-Anglicans.
D)pervasiveness of religious apathy.
E)influence of Catholic missionaries.
Which of the following might NOT be considered a legacy of the Great Awakening?
A)legitimization of dissent
B)separation of church and state
D)a basis for Protestants to live together in relative harmony
E)enhanced feelings of individual self-worth
The religious revival known as the Great Awakening:
A)reaffirmed traditional sources of authority.
B)affected the colonies equally and simultaneously.
C)led southern planters to free their slaves.
D)helped stem the tide of revolutionary thought and behavior.
E)emphasized an emotional rather than intellectual approach to religion.
Royal checks on colonial lawmaking operated imperfectly in the eighteenth century primarily because of the:
A)weakness of colonial governors.
B)fear of American reprisals to English objections.
C)time lag in English response to colonial action.
D)temperamental nature of colonial assemblies.
E)provincial nature of colonial legislation.
The most important government for colonial New Englanders was the:
A)House of Burgesses.
According to the Whig ideology, the best defense against corruption and tyranny rested in the:
A)higher nature of the monarch.
B)increased power of the executive.
C)eternal vigilance by the people.
D)suppression of dissent and sedition.
E)maintenance of a strong standing army.
Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, England:
A)replaced all royal governors with elected representatives.
B)entered a political alliance with France.
C)relaxed customs regulations and reduced duties.
D)tightened imperial controls over her American empire.
E)forbade colonial merchants the right to engage in foreign trade
As a result of the Molasses Act of 1733:
A)New England merchants and shippers gained new respect for royal authority.
B)New England rum had to be shipped to England before being exported to another country.
C)many of New England's largest merchants and distillers resorted to smuggling.
D)Parliament reduced the tax on molasses from 6 pence to 3 pence.
E)trade between New England and the French West Indies collapsed.
The underlying cause of the Seven Years' War in America was (the):
A)France's attack on English colonies in India.
B)English colonial penetration of the Ohio Valley.
C)French takeover of the western fur trade.
D)French attack on the western forces of George Washington.
E)English retaliation against western Indian attacks.
The British Proclamation of 1763:
A)ordered colonial governors to reserve lands west of the Appalachian Mountains for Indian nations.
B)removed all Indians west of the Mississippi River.
C)ended reckless speculation in western lands by eastern investors.
D)successfully ended an attempt by Ottawa Indians to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley.
E)allowed western Indians the right to trade with any European merchants.
Which of the following provisions was NOT a part of George Grenville's program to raise colonial revenue?
A)prohibition of colonial currency
B)strict enforcement of the Sugar Act
C)stamp duties on various colonial documents and products
D)an expanded list of enumerated commodities
E)increased taxes on imported French molasses
Colonists protested the Stamp Act in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
A)boycott of British goods by American merchants.
B)passage of formal resolutions by the Virginia House of Burgesses.
C)burning of stamp distributors in effigy.
D)a Declaration of Independence.
E)formation of an intercolonial Stamp Act Congress.
The Boston Massacre, in which five townspeople were killed by British redcoats:
A)galvanized the colonies into further resistance to English policies.
B)demonstrated the calculated desire of the British to crush colonial rebellion.
C)resulted in a speedy conviction and execution of the soldiers.
D)convinced Governor Hutchinson to order British troops out of town.
E)convinced Parliament to repeal all colonial taxes.
Americans objected to the Tea Act of 1773 because it would:
A)require them to drink an inferior tea.
B)bankrupt the popular East India Company.
C)cause smuggled Dutch tea to be undersold.
D)increase Parliament's taxation of tea.
E)raise the price of tea in America.
Even before the Second Continental Congress assembled in May 1775, most colonies had created extralegal, revolutionary governments which:
A)operated the courts.
B)created and armed militia units.
D)bullied merchants and shopkeepers to conform to boycotts.
E)all of the above
The ideology of revolutionary republicanism:
A)borrowed ideas from a variety of former Whig and Enlightenment thinkers.
B)provided a coherent doctrine to which all colonists could subscribe.
C)rejected the authority of the king and Parliament.
D)originated in the struggle of American colonists against imperial despotism.
E)reflected common colonial interests and experiences.
Many Americans viewed English policies after 1763 as:
A)a systematic attack on their constitutional liberties.
B)a slow attempt to extinguish the lamp of liberty in England.
C)threats to their economic interests.
D)evidence of English corruption.
E)all of the above
Much of the colonial clergy:
A)urged their congregations to obey British laws.
B)supported the revolutionary movement against English rule.
C)saw the revolutionary movement as dangerously immoral.
D)claimed that the British were not true Christians.
E)denounced the revolutionary pamphleteers.
Discussions at the First Continental Congress were LEAST concerned with:
A)determining a colonial plan of resistance.
B)writing a restrained Declaration of Rights and Resolves.
C)defining and justifying American grievances against England.
D)overcoming sectional hostilities and jealousies.
E)preparing financially and militarily for war.
During the 1760s and 1770s, urban artisans in America:
A)used political discontent to demand internal reforms.
B)feared political protests might provoke retaliation by powerful merchants.
C)degenerated into radical and unruly mobs.
D)remained deferential toward their economic superiors.
E)opposed revolutionary agitation against England.
The most important revolutionary role for colonial women was:
A)organizing political protests.
B)organizing fast days.
C)facilitating the boycott of English goods.
D)offering medical support to military units.
E)praying for deliverance from English oppression.
Most colonial farmers of the 1750s and 1760s:
A)feared that British troops would steal their crops.
B)immediately joined the resistance movement.
C)would fight with the British during the Revolution.
D)suffered from declining prices and markets.
E)seemed more concerned with local issues than English policies.
Some revolutionary ideas were expressed in the form of broadsides. A broadside is a:
E)single printed sheet.
The Intolerable Acts provided for all of the following EXCEPT the:
A)individual punishment of participants in the Boston Tea Party.
B)closing of Boston's port until Massachusetts paid for tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party.
C)immunity of British soldiers involved in suppressing civil disturbances from local court trials.
D)stripping of the upper house of the Massachusetts legislative chamber of its veto power.
E)replacement of Hutchinson as governor by the commander in chief of British forces in America.
As a result of the Townshend duties of 1767, Parliament:
A)raised customs duties on American imports of paper, lead, paint, and tea.
B)forced American colonists to pay a higher tax on sugar.
C)sent a circular letter to each colony explaining England's need for revenue.
D)required colonial assemblies to pay the salaries of royal officials from local property taxes.
E)permanently suspended New York's rebellious assembly for noncompliance with British regulations.
Passage of the Declaratory Act by Parliament:
A)politicized the American resistance movement.
B)demonstrated British desire to reach a compromise solution with the colonies on matters of taxation.
C)resolved the problems that had created the Stamp Act crisis.
D)forced American colonists to obey the Stamp Act.
E)asserted Parliament's power to enact laws for the colonies in "all cases whatsoever."
The turning point of the Seven Years' War in America occurred when:
A)English Prime Minister William Pitt threw his nation's full military might into the American campaign.
B)Andrew Jackson won the battle of New Orleans.
C)American representatives approved a plan for intercolonial action.
D)General Edward Braddock claimed control of Fort Duquesne.
E)the French won the alliance of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy.