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Carney Ch 23 vocab
Terms in this set (25)
Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes. Visible light is one type of electromagnetic radiation; other familiar forms are invisible to the human eye, such as radio waves, infrared light and X-rays.
a particle representing a quantum of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A photon carries energy proportional to the radiation frequency but has zero rest mass.
Radiation pressure is defined as the force per unit area exerted by electromagnetic radiation, and is given by. where p is the momentum, c is the speed of light, and is then energy flux.
the branch of science concerned with the investigation and measurement of spectra produced when matter interacts with or emits electromagnetic radiation.
an emission spectrum that consists of a continuum of wavelengths
an apparatus for producing and recording spectra for examination.
Dark-line Absorption Spectrum
an electromagnetic spectrum in which a decrease in intensity of radiation at specific wavelengths or ranges of wavelengths characteristic of an absorbing substance (as chlorophyll) is manifested especially as a pattern of dark lines or bands—compare emission spectrum.
Bright-line Emission Spectrum
the continuous spectrum or pattern of bright lines or bands seen when the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a substance is passed into a spectrometer. The spectrum is characteristic of the emitting substance and the type of excitation to which it is subjected Compare absorption spectrum.
an increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other. The effect causes the sudden change in pitch noticeable in a passing siren, as well as the redshift seen by astronomers.
a telescope that uses a converging lens to collect light.
the material effect produced by the refraction of different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation through slightly different angles, resulting in a failure to focus. It causes colored fringes in the images produced by uncorrected lenses
a telescope in which a mirror is used to collect and focus light
an instrument used to detect radio emissions from the sky, whether from natural celestial objects or from artificial satellites
radio interferometer. noun, Astronomy. 1. any of several different types of instrumentation designed to observe interference patterns of electromagnetic radiation at radio wavelengths: used in the discovery and measurement of radio sources in the atmosphere.
the luminous envelope of a star from which its light and heat radiate.
a small compact particle of a substance
a reddish gaseous layer immediately above the photosphere of the sun or another star. Together with the corona, it constitutes the star's outer atmosphere.
the rarefied gaseous envelope of the sun and other stars. The sun's corona is normally visible only during a total solar eclipse when it is seen as an irregularly shaped pearly glow surrounding the darkened disk of the moon.Solar Wind the continuous flow of charged particles from the sun that permeates the solar system
the continuous flow of charged particles from the sun that permeates the solar system
a spot or patch appearing from time to time on the sun's surface, appearing dark by contrast with its surroundings
the fact or condition of standing out from something by physically projecting or being particularly noticeable.
a brief eruption of intense high-energy radiation from the sun's surface, associated with sunspots and causing electromagnetic disturbances on the earth, as with radio frequency communications and power line transmissions.
a natural electrical phenomenon characterized by the appearance of streamers of reddish or greenish light in the sky, usually near the northern or southern magnetic pole.
a nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of energy.
chain reaction dominates in stars the size of the Sun or smaller. The proton-proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium. It dominates in stars the size of the Sun or smaller.
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Which value , apparent magnitude, or absolute magnitude , do you think: a) tells us how bright an object will appear from Earth? b) tells us about the object's actual brightness?
In a part of Earth’s orbit where Earth is moving faster than usual around the Sun, would the length of the sidereal day change? If so, how? Explain.
What star appears the brightest in the sky (other than the Sun)? The second brightest? What color is Betelgeuse? Use Appendix J to find the answers.
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