Unit 3 Biology Sections 1 and 2

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Terms in this set (...)

ecology
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
biosphere
land, water, and air is in the ...
species
ecologists asks questions about events and organisms (that range in complexity from an individual to the biosphere) to understand the relationship among and between ... within the biosphere
species
a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
population
a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
community
an assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
ecosystem
a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
biome
a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominate communities
biosphere
highest level of organization that ecologists study, the combined portions of the planet in which all life exists
interdependence
interactions within the biosphere produces a web of _____ between organisms and the environment in which they live
sunlight
at the core of every organism's interaction with the environment, the main energy source for life on earth
inorganic chemical compounds
source of energy organisms use when not using the sun's energy
autotrophs
organisms that use energy from sunlight or chemicals to produce food
producers
another name for autotrophs
food
autotrophs are also called producers because they make their own ____
photosynthesis
during this process, autotrophs use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into water and energy(rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches)
plants
kind of autotroph thats the main producer on land
algae
kind of autotroph thats the main producer on the upper layers of the ocean
cyanobacteria
kind of autotroph thats the main producer on tidal flats and salt marshes
chemosynthesis
the process in which organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
remote
bacteria that carry out chemosynthesis live in very ____ areas(volcanic vents on the ocean floor or hot springs)
consumers
another name for heterotrophs
detritus
plant and animal remains and other dead matter
herbivore
heterotroph that obtains energy by eating only plants, cows/rabbits
carnivore
heterotroph that eat animals, snakes/dogs/owls
omnivore
heterotroph that eat both plants and animals, humans/bears/crow
detritivore
heterotroph that feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter, mites/earthworms/snails
decomposer
heterotroph that break down organic matter, bacteria/fungi
one direction
energy flows in the ecosystem in______, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs and then to various heterotrophs
food chain
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten
food web
shows the feeding relationship among various organisms in an ecosystem
food chains
a food web links together all the ____ in an ecosystem
trophic level
each step in a food chain or food web
consumers
______ make up the second, third, or higher trophic levels
energy
each consumer in a food chain depends on the trophic level below for ______
ecological pyramid
a diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
life processes (know entire definition)
only part of the energy stored in one trophic level is passed on to the next level because organisms use much of the energy they consume for
...
the process in which organisms use chemical energy
biomass
the total amount of living tissue within a trophic level
biomass pyramid
represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level
pyramid of numbers
the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level
hydrogen sulfide
other source organisms can draw energy from
tertiary consumers
first trophic level, carnivore (snake, eagle)
secondary consumer
second trophic level, omnivore (coyote, bear)
primary consumers
third trophic level, herbivore (rabbit, deer)
producers
fourth trophic level, autotroph (carrot plant, oats)
one tenth
each trophic level can only support about _____ the amount of living tissue as the one below it