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Van't Hoff Factor

In colligative properties calculations this variable corrects for ionic dissociation


The formation of a solid in a solution


A homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances


Used to measure the light absorbance of solutions

Vapor Pressure

The pressure at which a gas will be dissolving back into solution at the same rate it is evaporating


The condition of a plant cell in an isotonic solution


A solution with a much LOWER concentration than that of a solution within a semi-permeable membrane (such as a cell)


Used to measure the osmotic pressure of a solution


Reaction equivalents/L solution


The condition of a plant cell in a hypotonic solution

Henry's Law

The solubility of a gas in a liquid at a particular temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the liquid


The movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of high water potential (low concentration of dissolved substances) to an area of low water potential (high conc

Osmotic Pressure

The pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane


The condition of an animal cell in a hypertonic solution


Used to measure the boiling point of solutions


Two substances that form a solution when mixed in any proportion


A solution with the SAME concentration on both sides of a semi-permeable membrane

Heat of Hydration

Describes the change in enthalpy when a compound is dissolved in water


The condition of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution


Mass per volume

Boiling Point Elevation

Delta T = molality x ebullioscopic constant x van't hoff factor

Mole Fraction

mol solute/sum of all mol in solution


The process by which molecules in a liquid state or solid state spontaneously become gaseous

Colligative Properties

Properties of solutions that depend on the number of molecules in a given volume of solvent and not on the properties (e.g. size or mass) of the molecules


The rate at which one substance is solvated by another


A solution with a much HIGHER concentration than that of a solution within a semi-permeable membrane (such as a cell)

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light particles caused by colloids that tends to reflect blue better than other colors


A substance dissolved into a solution


To add more solvent or reduce the amount of solute

Raoult's Law

Describes the effect on vapor pressure when increasing the concentration of a solution


Particles of a dispersed substance are only suspended in a mixture, NOT completely dissolved


A solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances

Freezing Point Depression

Describes the effect on freezing point of a solution with increasing concentration


mol solute/kg solvent


Describes the equilibrium point at which rate of dissolution is equal to rate of precipitation (usually in mol/kg)


How much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance, often referring to a solvent in a solute


A concentration at which no further solute will dissolve in a solution


The medium of a solution into which other substances are dissolved


The condition of an animal cell in a hypotonic solution

Beer's Law

The amount of light absorbed by a substance at a given wavelength is directly proportional to its concentration in a solution.


mol solute/L solution

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