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41 terms

Solvation Chemistry: Advanced

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Van't Hoff Factor
In colligative properties calculations this variable corrects for ionic dissociation
Precipitation
The formation of a solid in a solution
Solution
A homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances
Spectrophotometer
Used to measure the light absorbance of solutions
Vapor Pressure
The pressure at which a gas will be dissolving back into solution at the same rate it is evaporating
Flaccid
The condition of a plant cell in an isotonic solution
Hypotonic
A solution with a much LOWER concentration than that of a solution within a semi-permeable membrane (such as a cell)
Osmometer
Used to measure the osmotic pressure of a solution
Normality
Reaction equivalents/L solution
Turgid
The condition of a plant cell in a hypotonic solution
Henry's Law
The solubility of a gas in a liquid at a particular temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the liquid
Osmosis
The movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of high water potential (low concentration of dissolved substances) to an area of low water potential (high conc
Osmotic Pressure
The pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane
Shriveled
The condition of an animal cell in a hypertonic solution
Ebullioscope
Used to measure the boiling point of solutions
Miscible
Two substances that form a solution when mixed in any proportion
Isotonic
A solution with the SAME concentration on both sides of a semi-permeable membrane
Heat of Hydration
Describes the change in enthalpy when a compound is dissolved in water
Plasmolyzed
The condition of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution
Density
Mass per volume
Boiling Point Elevation
Delta T = molality x ebullioscopic constant x van't hoff factor
Mole Fraction
mol solute/sum of all mol in solution
Evaporation
The process by which molecules in a liquid state or solid state spontaneously become gaseous
Colligative Properties
Properties of solutions that depend on the number of molecules in a given volume of solvent and not on the properties (e.g. size or mass) of the molecules
Dissolution
The rate at which one substance is solvated by another
Hypertonic
A solution with a much HIGHER concentration than that of a solution within a semi-permeable membrane (such as a cell)
Tyndall Effect
The scattering of light particles caused by colloids that tends to reflect blue better than other colors
Solute
A substance dissolved into a solution
Dilute
To add more solvent or reduce the amount of solute
Raoult's Law
Describes the effect on vapor pressure when increasing the concentration of a solution
Colloid
Particles of a dispersed substance are only suspended in a mixture, NOT completely dissolved
Supersaturated
A solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances
Freezing Point Depression
Describes the effect on freezing point of a solution with increasing concentration
Molality
mol solute/kg solvent
Solubility
Describes the equilibrium point at which rate of dissolution is equal to rate of precipitation (usually in mol/kg)
Concentration
How much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance, often referring to a solvent in a solute
Saturation
A concentration at which no further solute will dissolve in a solution
Solvent
The medium of a solution into which other substances are dissolved
Lysed
The condition of an animal cell in a hypotonic solution
Beer's Law
The amount of light absorbed by a substance at a given wavelength is directly proportional to its concentration in a solution.
Molarity
mol solute/L solution