22 terms

Module 5 Biology

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Signal transduction pathway allows
Select one:
a. one cell to regulate the gene expression of another cell
b. a cell to repair damage to its DNA
c. genes from one organism to be inserted into the nucleus of another organism's cells
d. whole genomes to be sequenced
a
All of the following are identified regions on DNA molecules, EXCEPT
Select one:
a. STR's
b. telomeres
c. genes
d. amino acids
d
For one of your cells to make a functional protein, the following events occur in which order?
(1) covalent bonds form between amino acids to form a polypeptide
(2) a polypeptide chain of hundreds of amino acids folds very specifically
(3) amino acids are delivered to ribosomes by tRNA
(4) your cell obtains a pool of amino acids monomers from proteins you eat or from recycling proteins within the cell
Select one:
a. 4, 3, 2, 1
b. 3, 4, 1, 2
c. 3, 4, 2, 1
d. 4, 3, 1, 2
d
Recombinant DNA technology is used in all of the following, except
Select one:
a. GMO's such as engineered golden rice
b. DNA fingerprinting
c. making humulin
d. gene therapy in humans
b
Which of the following best describes the DNA in one of your cells
Select one:
a. it is minimally-coiled around proteins during transcription
b. it is super-coiled around proteins during DNA replication
c. it is super-coiled around proteins during transcription
d. DNA avoids coiling since it causes mutations
a
Expression of a gene requires the orchestration of many molecules. If a single member of that orchestra does not participate the end product will not be formed. Which of the following molecules is the end product of gene expression?
Select one:
a. rRNA
b. DNA
c. mRNA
d. tRNA
e. a protein
f. an amino acid
e
If only a small sample of DNA was collected at a crime scene, which technology would permit exact copies of the sample to be made
Select one:
a. Gel electrophoresis
b. gene cloning
c. Polymerase Chain Reaction
d. Recombinant DNA
e. DNA replication
c
Genetically modified foods made via recombinant DNA technology
Select one:
a. offer improved nutritional content over their non-GMO counterpart
b. are clearly identified on food nutrition labels
c. are produced using selective breeding techniques
d. have foreign genes spliced into their DNA
d
Short tandem repeats (STR) are
Select one:
a. hormones that signal DNA molecules to replicate
b. genes on the Y chromosome involved in gender determination
c. mature mRNA strands (after editing)
d. regions of high variability within the human genome used for DNA profiling
d
The information portion of the DNA molecule are the
Select one:
a. bases
b. phosphate groups
c. deoxyribose sugars
d. all of the responses are correct
a
When genes are in the "off" state they are not expressed. How are genes turned on?
Select one:
a. Transcription factors must first bind to the DNA.
b. ATP binds to the DNA to initiate transcription.
c. RNA polymerase must first bind to the exons.
d. DNA helicase must first bind to the promoter site of the DNA.
a
The Human Genome Project involved
Select one:
a. using computers to establish the DNA base sequence of humans
b. locating genetic mutations within the gene pool
c. inserting human genes into different organisms
d. selective breeding
a
Amino acids are transported to the ribosomes for protein synthesis by
Select one:
a. mRNA's
b. rRNA's
c. tRNA's
d. vesicles
c
Why does a cell replicate its DNA?
Select one:
a. to have a back up copy in case the original is mutated
b. because some of it is converted into proteins during gene expression
c. extra DNA is needed for natural selection
d. to have a sufficient amount of DNA to distribute to offspring cells
d
Nuclear transplantation (reproductive cloning) of animals involves
Select one:
a. a cluster of embryonic cells is implanted into the uterus of the biological mother
b. in vitro fertilization is followed by complete development in the lab
c. cells, tissues and organs are generated from different hormones
d. nuclear DNA from a body cell is placed into a nucleus-free egg cell
d
DNA's
Select one:
a. code is transcribed and then translated to synthesize proteins
b. molecular structure is referred to as a double helix
c. complementary base pairings are A-T and C-G
d. all of the responses are correct
e. none of the responses are correct
d
The mRNA sequence that dictates how many copies of a particular protein are to be translated
Select one:
a. poly-A tail
b. telomere
c. intron
d. codon
a
DNA polymerase molecules are crucial to both your existence and for certain DNA technologies (ie. PCR). What work does this essential molecule do?
Select one:
a. It breaks hydrogen bonds so that DNA can be replicated or transcribed.
b. It prevents all mutations.
c. It matches complementary base pairs when a new DNA molecule is synthesized.
d. It fuses together DNA fragments.
c
PCR is a valuable technology because
Select one:
a. it allows for tissue compatibility
b. small amounts of DNA can be amplified
c. it is more precise than DNA fingerprinting
d. it helps geneticists to locate genes
b
The enzymes that break the hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs during DNA replication are
Select one:
a. helicases
b. DNA polymerases
c. DNA ligases
d. topoisomerase
a
The molecular 'scissors' used to cut DNA into fragments used in gel electrophoresis and other recombinant technologies
Select one:
a. ligases
b. helicases
c. restriction enzymes
d. DNA polymerases
c
A codon is an important designation because this code
Select one:
a. indicates a specific amino acid
b. can never be affected by a mutation
c. signals which gene will be expressed
d. can cut DNA in any location
a