Baking & Pastry

What method results in a muffin with a cake like texture?
The creaming method.
When using backing soda, an acid combines with the baking soda and releases what ?
Carbon Dioxide Gas
When making a recipe using the creamed method how are eggs added?
Eggs are added slowly
What is the primary difference between the biscuit method and the muffin method?
The biscuit method uses solid fat and the muffin method can only be made using liquid fat.
What is the difference between baking soda and baking powder?
Baking soda needs an acid to initiate the release of gas. Baking powder already has acid in it.
The special mixing methods for quick breads are designed to reduce _______.
Gluten Formation
What must be done in order to keep fruit suspended in a very liquid mix?
The fruit mush be coated with a light dusting of flour which will coagulate around the fruit during baking and keep it suspended in the mix.
When creaming a mixture how do you know that it is fully creamed?
The butter sugar mixture will be twice its original volume.
What is baking soda or baking powder used for?
Chemical Leavening
What will cause scones to become tough and chewy?
Kneading the dough too much.
What are the 12 steps for making a loaf of bread?
1. Scaling Ingredients
2. Mixing
3. Bulk Fermentation
4. Folding or De-gassing
5. Scaling or Portioning
6. Rounding or Preshaping
7. Bench Rest
8. Final Shaping
9. Panning
10. Proofing
11. Baking
12. Cooling & Storage
What can be done to check that the dough has been properly kneaded?
Perform the Windowpane Test
What kind of yeast can be added directly to dry ingredients?
Instant Dry Yeast
What is Fermentation?
The process by which the yeast acts on sugars and changes them into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
If a recipe calls for 3 oz of compressed yeast how much instant yeast would you have to scale?
1 oz.
What temperature range should the fat and dough be in when making puff pastry, croissants or brioche?
45-55° F
What kind of meringue is made by pouring hot syrup over whipped egg whites?
How were ladyfingers originally shaped?
With a spoon.
True or False: The best way to improve the volume in whipped egg whites is to add the sugar all at once.
True or False: It is most likely that a bowl of whipped egg whites which appears lumpy has been over whipped.
True or False: A high percentage of sugar should produce a sticky and gooey cake.
What is Gluten?
A tough, rubbery substance, formed when wheat flour is mixed with water.
True or False: The cocoa liqour content in chocolate has a direct effect on the firmness of a chocolate mousse. It can be used to indicate if you will need to add gelatin to the mousse for setting.
What is diplomat cream made from?
Pastry cream, whipped cream and gelatin (optional depending on the thickness of the pastry cream.
True or False: Brioche dough is mixed using a two stage method which allows the protein structure in the bread to be developed before the fat can interfere.
When making croissants, each individual set of folds is called a _____, because of how the dough is positioned before doing the set.
True of False: Because cookies contain larger amounts of fat than other pastries, over mixing them is not a concern.
True or False: Using vinegar in puff pastry dough can help the gluten to relax.
True or False: Pate Sucree is different from pid dough partly because it can be patched and rerolled repeatedly, making it the right choice for fruit tarts.
What is the typical mixing time for straight dough?
10 minutes
Dried egg whites or an _____ such as creme de tartar are often added to stabilize egg whites when making meringue.
Match the cakes & desserts (left) with the correct preparation (right):

Genoise Sponge Thin flexible

Creme Brûlée Ribbon Stage

Jaconde Sponge Soft ball sugar

French Mousseline Baine Marie
Genoise - Ribbon Stage
Creme Brûlée - Bain Marie
Jaconde Sponge - Thin flexible
French Mouseline - Softball Sugar
True of False: To achieve maximum lightness in a mousse, it is important to whip the cream to stiff peaks.
When is the soft ball stage of cooking sugar reached?
When the mixture reaches 240° F and forms a pearl sized sticky mass between the fingers.
True or False: A cupful of honey and a cupful of mil each weigh 8 ounces.
If using ganache to make mousse how will an unstable emulsion in the ganache affect the mousse?
It will result in a mousse with a sticky-greasy mouthfeel
Meringue can completely collapse if it comes in contact with a single gram of _____.
Match the cakes & desserts (left) with the correct preparation (right):

Panna Cotta Sponge made w/oil

Ladyfinger Steam Leavening

Chiffon Gelatin-set cream

Tuille Piped into ovals

Pate a Choux Stencil
Panna Cotta - Gelatin-set cream
Lady Finger - Piped into ovals
Chiffon - Spongecake made w/oil
Tuille - Stencil
Pate a Choux - Steam Leavening
True or False: Puff pastry rises higher than other laminated doughs because of yeast.
How many layers does classic puff pastry have?
Over 1,000
What is the typical egg foam used in a fruit mousse?
Italian Meringue
What will be the result of spraying water on a baguette prior to oven baking?
It will create a crispy crust.
True or False: Before tempering in the milk, it is important to mix a lump free slurry for your pastry cream.
How is French Meringue made?
By gradually adding uncooked sugar to egg whites while they are being whipped.
True or False: Using the pate fementee method, you will make lighter and flakier croissants and Danish.
True or False: Eggs and air incorporated during the mixing process are usually the only leaveners in a traditional genoise formula.
By how much will yeast breads increase by during proofing?
True or False: Before adding gelatin to a glaze it is important to boil the gelatin.
What happens to mouse when it is applied using a piping bag?
Its volume decreases by 15-20%
What action/phase of the dough making process allows yeast doughs to develop flair over an extended period of time?
One way to gradually slow down the foaming action as egg whites are being whipped on a mixer is by adding _____ slowly.
How is Swiss Meringue made?
By heating egg whites and sugar gently over a water bath to 140° F, then whipping to a stiff meringue on high speed.
What is the result of lowering the butter content and increasing the eggs in a cookie recipe?
It results in more cake like cookies.
What kind of leavening is yeast used for?
Biological Leavening
Match the following (left) the the way you would mix them (right):

Fruit Tart Poolish starter

Ciabatta Cut in method

Hamburger bun Sucre dough

Scones Straight dough
Fruit Tart - Sucre dough
Ciabata - Poolish starter
Hamburger bun - Straight dough
Scones - Cut in method
True or False: Mealy, flaky and sweet doughs are all made with identical ingredients (fat, flour, sugar and perhaps eggs), but the way of mixing the fat differs.
At what temperature do egg whites foam best?
Room Temperature
True or False: An acid such as lemon juice or cream of tatar will increase crystallization in sugar solutions.
Match the following (left) the the way you would mix them (right):

Profiteroles Straight dough

Classic Baguettes Pate a choux

Cinnamon Bread Sponge starter

Brioche Poolish starter
Profiteroles - Pate a choux
Classic Baguettes - Poolish starter
Cinnamon Raisin Bread - Straight dough
Brioch - Sponge starter
True or False: Croissant and Danish doughs are kneaded for leads time than other yeast doughs because the rolling and folding process develops gluten.
True or False: When cooking caramel or sugar solutions it is important to wash down the sides of the pot with clean water as it comes up to a boil.
What are the six steps for making chocolate mousse?
1. Whip the cream and set aside in fridge
2. Melt the chocolate & prepare egg based foams
3. Adjust temperature of mousse components
4. Fold in parte a bombe
5. Fold in whipped cream
6. Fold in meringue
Why is it important to boil pastry cream?
Because it contains an enzyme that will destroy starches thickening properties overnight or cause it to revert.
Match the following (left) the the way you would mix them (right):

Walnut Levain Cut in method

Simple Baguette Sponge starter

Challah Straight dough

Blueberry Pie Liquid sour starter

Biscuit Long flake method
Walnut Levain - Liquid Sour Starter
Simple Baguette - Straight Doug
Challah - Sponge starter
Blueberry Pie - Long flake method
Biscuit - Cut In Method