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Music Theory

College Fundamentals of Music theory accumalation
STUDY
PLAY
Common Practice Period
(1600-1900) the basis for our traditional system of notating music and defining its elements, basis of the study of music fundamentals.
Frequency
the number of cycles per second (or Hertz, abbreviated Hz)
Pitch
A steady, single frequency
Rhythm
How sounds are arranged in time and the proportional relationships between them.
Timbre
acoustic wave shape that forms the "color" of pitch.
Dynamics
specify how loud or soft a sound is in musical notation, and based on italian terms.
pianississimo
very very soft
pianissimo
very soft
piano
soft
mezzo-piano
medium soft
mezzo-forte
medium loud
forte
loud
fortissimo
very loud
fortississmo
very very loud
tuplet
any rhythm that involves dividing the beat into a different number of equal subdivisions from that usually permitted by the time-signature (e.g., triplets, duplets, etc.)
triplet
three notes performed in the space of two
quintuplet
5 notes into the time of 4
sextuplet
6 notes in the time 5
septuplet
7 notes in the time of 6
largo
very slow
adagio
slow
andante
moderately slow
moderato
moderate
allegro
fast
presto
very fast
Simple groupings
grouping of two notes
compound groupings
grouping of three notes
divisive rhythm
involves dividing a larger period of time into smaller rhythmic units
downbeat
first beat of each measure
upbeat
last beat of each measure
simple meter
each beat divides into simple groupings
Time signature in simple grouping top number means?
indicates the number of beats per measure
Time signature in simple grouping bottom number means?
indicates the beat note type
The top number time signature in compound grouping means?
divided beats per measure
The bottom number time signature in compound grouping means?
divided beat note type
Fermata
indicates that the pulse stops and all parts must wait
asymmetrical meters
Unequal length of the beats for example 5/8
octave
eight notes, starting on a c and going up eight notes to the next c. Doubles the frequency of a certain pitch
enharmonic
relationship between pitches that "overlap" and occur on the same piano key
diatonic half step
each of the notes have a different letter name
chromatic hale step
half step where both notes use the same letter name but different accidentals
8va
one octave above notated pitches
15ma
two octaves above notated pitches
8vb
one octave below notated pitches
15mb
two octaves below notates pitches
ledger lines
used to extend both above and below each staff