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38 terms

Science Vocab for Exam

these are the vocab words you need for the test
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active transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy.
passive transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
Diffusion
The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
selectively permeable
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot.
element
Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
compound
Two or more elements that are chemically combined.
carbohydrate
Energy-rich organic compound, such as a sugar or a starch, that is made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
lipid
Energy-rich organic compound, such as a fat, oil, or wax, that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
protein
Large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
amino acid
A small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins.
enzyme
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing.
nucleic acid
Very large organic molecule made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, that contains the instructions cells need to carry out all the functions of life.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
RNA
Ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins.
organic
compounds that contain carbon
inorganic
Compounds that don't contain carbon
Respiration
The process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain.
fermentation
The process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen.
cell cycle
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.
interphase
The stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs.
replication
The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
mitosis
The stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.
chromosome
A doubled rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information.
cytokenesis
The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
organelle
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell.
chromatin
A complex of nucleic acids and proteins, primarily histones, in the cell nucleus that stains readily with basic dyes and condenses to form chromosomes during cell division.
nucleolus
a conspicuous, rounded body within the nucleus of a cell.
nuclear membrane
the double membrane surrounding the nucleus within a cell.
cell
The basic unit of structure and function in living things.
microscope
An instrument that makes small objects look larger.
cell theory
A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
classification
the process of grouping things based on their similarities
taxonomy
the study of how living things are classified
binomial nomenclature
The system for naming organisms in which each organism is given a unique, two-part scientific name indicating its genus and species
genus
A classification grouping that consists of a number of similar, closely related species
species
A group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce
prokaryote
organisms whose cells lack a nucleus