Upgrade to remove ads
Final Exam (Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Systems) - KHS306
Terms in this set (69)
The primary muscle of breathing during rest
What is the relationship between pressure and volume in the lungs?
Pleural membrane or pleura
The membrane that covers the lungs
If air gets into the pleural space due to a penetrating chest wound, the lungs can collapse. This is called a:
Anatomical dead space
The air in this space isn't useful because it isn't in the alveoli
The small sacs where gas exchange takes place
The amount of air moved during a normal breath is called the:
Supplies cells with oxygen
Rids the body of carbon dioxide
Respiratory System Functions
Increase in thoracic volume
Decrease in intrapulmonary pressure
Intrapulmonary pressure < atmospheric pressure
What happens during an inhale for resting breathing?
Decrease in thoracic volume
Increase in intrapulmonary pressure
Intrapulmonary pressure > atmospheric pressure
What happens during an exhale for resting breathing?
Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure
What happens when inhalation stops during resting breathing?
Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure
What happens when exhalation stops during resting breathing?
The ability of the spine and bony thorax to move
The ability of the tissue to recoil after it's stretched
The rate at which the lungs fill and empty is affected by (physically):
Compliance: ability to stretch and accommodate volume
Elastance: ability to recoil
What are compliance and elastance?
What muscles are recruited for forceful exhalation?
Physiological dead space
The air in this space isn't in the alveolar sacs with good blood supply and therefore can't have gas exchange
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
The extra air that you can forcefully exhale
How much air you can forcefully pull in
The difference between inspiratory capacity and tidal volume
Vital capacity (VC)
The range between maximum exhale to maximum inhale
Residual Volume (RV)
The amount of air remaining in your lungs after a forceful exhalation
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
The difference between the bottom of a normal breath and 0 capacity
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
From 0 to forceful inhale
Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV)
The amount air you can exhale in one second
In the blood
3 ways carbon dioxide is carried
Sets the basic rhythm of breathing
What does the ventral respiratory group do?
Fine tune breathing rate based on input
What do the dorsal and pontine respiratory groups do?
Stomach acid is moving into the esophagus
What is happening during acid reflux or heart burn?
Another name for swallowing
What is deglutition?
What digestive substance is produced in the liver?
Presence of fats
Presence of proteins
Acidity (low pH)
What are the 3 triggers for pancreatic juice secretion into the duodenum?
The mouth and the anus
Where does the GI tract start and end?
Oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus
What is the GI tract made up of?
Salivary glands, teeth, tongue, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
What are the accessory organs of the digestive system?
The liver produces a bile that is stored in the gallbladder and helps break down fat
What is the function of the liver?
A serous membrane with 3 layers that contains a lot of the organs in the abdominal cavity
What is the peritoneum?
Lesser omentum, messentary proper, greater omentum
What are 3 messentaries (folds of the peritoneum)?
Most external layer of the GI tract
Areolar connective tissue
What is the serosa?
2nd most external layer of GI tract
Myenteric nerve plexus
What is the muscularis externa?
2nd most internal layer of GI tract
Submucosal nerve plexus
Contains a lot of blood vessels and nerves
What is the submucosa?
Innermost layer of GI tract
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
What is the mucosa?
Ingestion - take the food in
Secretion - secreting mucus, saliva, enzymes, etc
Digestion - breakdown of larger things into smaller things
Motility - contractions and being pushed along
Absorption - movement of select things into our body
Defecation - removal of solid waste
What are the 6 phases of the gastrointestinal process?
Peristalsis - wavelike contractions of smooth muscle, used for movement
Segmentation - used for mixing and mechanical digestion
What are the two modes of motility?
Secretion - saliva
Mechanical digestion - teeth, tongue, cheeks
Motility - deglutition
What happens in the oral cavity?
Parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gland
What are the three salivary glands?
Enzymes - salivary amylase, CHO
What are the functions of the salivary glands?
Is the upper esophageal sphincter voluntary or involuntary?
Is the lower esophageal sphincter voluntary or involuntary?
Cardia (where the esophagus enter the stomach)
What are the parts of the stomach in order from top to bottom?
Goblet cells - mucus
Parietal cells - HCl
Chief cells - pepsinogen
G-cells - gastrin, CCK
What are the cells in the stomach and what do they secrete?
Kill microorganisms (HCl)
Denature protein (HCl)
Break peptide bonds (pepsin)
What are the functions of the stomach?
Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
Liver/gallbladder - bile
Duodenal glands - secrete bicarbonate
Pancreatic juice - alkaline
What 3 things empty in at the duodenum?
Acini cells - produce pancreatic juice
What are the exocrine components of the pancreas?
Salivary amylase - disaccharides
Brush border enzymes - monosaccharides
How do carbohydrates get digested?
HCl - denatured
Pepsin - smaller peptides
Brush border enzymes - smaller peptides, amino acids
How do proteins get digested?
Bile - emulsifies fats
Lipases enter - micelles (droplets), packaged into chylomicrons, lacteals
How do fats get digested?
Small intestine - ileocecal valve - cecum (appendix from this) - ascending colon - descending colon - sigmoid colon - rectum - anal cavity - anus
What is the path/makeup of the large intestine?
Internal - smooth muscle, involuntary
External - skeletal muscle, voluntary
What's the difference between the internal and external anal sphincters?
Break down remnants of carbohydrates - flatus
What are the functions of the large intestine?
Cephalic phase, Gastric phase, Intestinal phase
What are the 3 phases of the enteric nervous system?
Increased HCl - parietal
Increased stomach motility
Increased pepsinogen - chief cells
What happens in the cephalic phase?
CCK is released - gallbladder contraction/bile release - relax sphincteral muscle for entry of bile and pancreatic juice - increased fat and protein digestion
What happens when chemoreceptors detect fats and proteins in the intestinal phase?
Secretin release (hormone) - pancreas secretes more bicarbonate - better buffer, brings down the acidity
What happens when chemoreceptors detect a low pH in the intestinal phase?
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) - pancreas secretes insulin - slows down gastric emptying - reduces blood glucose
What happens when chemoreceptors detect a high blood glucose level in the intestinal phase?
What structure separates the small and large intestine?
What is required to convert pepsinogen to pepsin?
Fats, lipids, or triglycerides
Enzymes known as lipases break down what?
The liver converts all monosaccharides into:
Sets with similar terms
Digestion/ Respiration Lecture Test
AP Respiratory and Digestive
Combo with Exercise 32 and 3 others
Other sets by this creator
TherEx & Rehab Final
Phys Ex Final
Final Exam (Upper Evaluation) - KHS287
Cardiovascular System Test - KHS306
Other Quizlet sets
The Age of Jackson
Western Civ final
Declaration of Independence