AP Gov chapter 3
Terms in this set (60)
The effort to transfer responsibility for many public programs and services from the federal government to the states
The transfer of power from federal to state government
Money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines determined by Washington
Necessary and proper clause
Section of the Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to its duties, and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it (enumerated) by the Constitution.
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres should be kept separate
State power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals.
process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot
procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature
procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
money given by the national government to the states
federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport
federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states
Conditions of aid
Terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds.
terms set by the national government that states must meet whether OR NOT they accept federal grants
Natural Rights (Unalienable Rights)
rights that you're born with and can't be given or taken away
Social Contract Theory
The belief that the people agree to set up rulers for certain purposes and thus have the right to resist or remove rulers who act against those purposes
Consent of the Governed
the idea that government derives its authority by the sanction of the people
Articles of Confederation
a weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War
Annapolis Convention (1786)
the first steps toward reform were taken when a dispute between Maryland and Virginia over navigation on the Potomac River. The argument led to a conference, but only representatives from five of the thirteen states were present. This argument caused Alexander Hamilton to convince his colleagues that the states had to appoint representatives for a meeting to discuss the general commercial problems i.e. Constitutional convention.
meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new Constitution
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. The Virginia Plan favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In opposition, the small states proposed the New Jersey Plan. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise.
New Jersey Plan
Strong natl govt. proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Great Compromise / CT Compromise
Plan to have popularly elected House based on state population and a state-selected Senate, with two members for each state.
A government in which elected representatives make the decisions
The power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Government authority shared by national and local governments
Checks & Balances
Authority shared by three branches of government
Enumerated Powers / Delegated Powers
Powers that are granted to the National Government alone.
powers given to the state government alone
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
a group with a distinct political interest
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution
Supporters of a weaker national government. those who opposed ratification of the Constitution.
The Federalist Papers
Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists
An alliance of factions
an order to produce an arrested person before a judge
Bill of Attainder
a law that declares a person, without a trial, to be guilty of a crime
Ex Post Facto Law
a law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when it was committed
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Three Fifths Compromise
agreement at the constitutional Convention that 3/5 of the slaves in any state be counted in its population
Formal Amending (of Constitution)
1) a vote of 2/3 of the members of both houses of Congress.
2) a vote of 2/3 of the state legislatures specifically requesting Congress to call a national convention to propose amendments.(never been used)
Informal Amending (of Constitution)
Occur in 5 key ways:
1 - passage of basic legislation by Congress
2 - actions taken by President
3 - key Supreme Court decisions
4 - activities of political parties
5 - custom and usage
Line Item Veto
an executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature
government free from external control
a government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
Confederation / Confederal System
A system in which the state governments are sovereign and the national government may do only what the states permit
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
McCulloch vs Maryland
Court ruled that congress did have authority to charter bank, citing the necessary and proper clause.
national government exercising its power independently from state governments,in which the federal and state governments each have their own issue areas, that rarely overlapped; also known as dual federalism.
the theory that all levels of government can work together to solve common problems. Also know as cooperative federalism.
When state or local officials lobby in Washington to get money or laws for their areas
Programs that the federal government requires states to implement without federal funding.
a type of block grant for purposes such as running state child care programs.
Solely for capital purposes; airport improvements, buses, subway systems, wastewater treatment plants.
A block grant for transferring income to individuals and families.
the effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
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