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Biology Chapter 1
Biology chapter 1 Holt McDougal
Terms in this set (82)
the theory that states that all organisms are made up of cells; all cells are produced from other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life
basic unit of all forms of life and makes up all living organisms
organism that is made up of a single cell and are usually genetically identical to their parent cell
many celled organism and they may be made up of many types of cells
The size of most cells are
specialized structures in cells
All cells must contain...
a set of genetic instructions or DNA
How long ago did life arise on the earth
3.5 billion yrs ago
Describe the first organisms
How many species of organisms exist on earth
List the levels of organization from simplest to most complex
atom: molecules : organells: cells: tissues: organs: systems: organisms (most complex level)
a group of similar cells tha perform a certain function
made up of different types of cells that work together
level of organization where life begins
Cells are organized into
What makes up organs?
Different types of tissues
Organs working together become an _________ and these working together make the entire _________.
What is the most inclusive level of life?
The part of the earth where life exists; area that supports living things
What are the levels of organization for multiple organisms (from simpliest to most complex)?
the study of interactions that take palce within organisms and their environment
the dependence of every organism on its connections with other living and nonliving parts of its environment
the process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time
a group of organisms so similarly genetic to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
group of organisms all of the same species which interbreek and living in a particular area at the same time
All of the populations of different species living and interacting in the same place at the same time
population of plants that interact with each other in a given area with the abiotic component of that area
Large geographic areas with similar climates and ecosystems
All living or organic materials in an ecosystem are__________?
All non-living material in an ecosystem are _______?
the ability to do work; all organisms require a constant supply of this
What directly or indirectly supplies the energy for living things?
the process of capturing sunlight and changing it into stored chemical energy for organisms
What 3 things do organisms need for from their environment?
Organisms that are able to make their own food
an organism that uses sunlight for photosynthesis converting CO2 and H2O into sugar and O2; makes its own food using sunlight
An organism that uses chemical reactions involving molecules, not sunlight, to make its own food.
organisms that cannot make their own food
Heterotrophs may be _________ eating autotrophs, ________ eating other heterotrophs, or ________ eating both autotrophs and heterotrophs to get energy.
What food making processis used by photautotrophes?
What do chemoautotrophs use to get energy?
Name 3 groups of heterotrophs
Process by which organisms maintain a stable internal conditions
Give example of homeostasis
then an orgasnism maintains constant internal conditions such as body temperature
Name 3 things that organisms must keep stable or balanced
Homeostasis is maintained using....
Most feedback loops are what?
Give an example of a negative feedback loop
maintaining temperature or sugar level
Most positive feedback is....
Give an example of positive feedback and how it works:
If you cut your finger the sensors will increase the rate of clotting factors in your blood until the wound is healed
the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
energy is needed for .......
all metabolic processes including growth and reproduction
All living organisms respond to what?
Give examples of stimuli in an organisms environment.
light, sound, heat, and touch
For living species to continue what needs to happen?
some of its members must be able to reproduce and pass on their traits to their offspring
When organisms reproduce what do they pass on to their offsprings?
Name 2 types of reproduction
process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent; combines heredity information from both parents
a single parent or singel cell produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent; cell divided to form two new cells
How do asexual reproduced organisms genetically compare to their parents
they are genetically the same; identical
When an egg and sperm join, a fertilized egg or _________ forms and contains DNA from _______ parents
In an _________ reproduction, only a single parent cell reproduces and the new cdells are genetically __________ to each other and the original cell
What carries the genetic code for all organisms?
Formal name for DNA
An individual living thing
What does DNA code for in a cell
all the activities that are performed in the cell; codes for the proteins
Why are proteins so important to cells?
They are involved in virtually all cell functions. Some proteins are involved in structural support, while others are involved in bodily movement, or in defense against germs
Name 2 ways that organisms grow
All new cells develop form __________ cells
As new cells mature, they ___________.
The process by which an organism becomes an adult is called __________. This process involves numerous cell _______ and cell ______.
division and enlargements
The size of an organism depends on what?
The number of cells that make it up, not the size of the cells
the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function
__________ not individual organisms, change or evolve over many generations
_______________ show us changes in a group of organisms
a characteristic that improves an individual's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
the process by which inherited characteristics gradually change from one generation to another
____________ is the driving force for evolution
According to natural selection which individuals in a population are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Those individuals with favorable characteristics are more likely to survive; survival of the fittest
Survival of the fittest
a change in population due to the survival and reproduction of organisms with favorable traits
Why do populations evolve?
to better suite to the environment and make chances of survival higher
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