106 terms

Environment

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biodiversity
the existence of a large number of different kinds of animals and plants which make a balanced environment
to contaminate
to pollute. To make a substance or place dirty or no longer pure by adding a substance that is dangerous or carries disease
to damage
harmful effects on somebody/something
power plant (power station)
a building or group of buildings where electricity is produced
nuclear/natural disaster
an unexpected event, such as a very bad accident, a flood or a fire, that kills a lot of people or causes a lot of damage
nuclear waste
waste material which is radioactive, especially used fuel from nuclear power stations
CO2 emissions
carbon dioxide emissions caused by burning of fossil fuels; largest contributor to global warming
Earth
the world; the planet that we live on.
On Earth -- the coldest place on Earth.
renewable energy
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
erosion
the process by which the surface of something is gradually destroyed through the action of wind, rain, etc
fossil fuels
fuel such as coal or oil, that was formed over millions of years from the remains of animals or plants.
toxin
a poison that can harm an organism
hunger (synonym starvation)
the state of not having enough food to eat, especially when this causes illness or death.
nuclear energy (power)
a powerful form of energy produced by converting matter into energy by splitting the nuclei (= central parts) of atoms. It is used to produce electricity.
carbon dioxide
a gas breathed out by people and animals from the lungs or produced by burning carbon
air pollution
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air
waste separation
Put different kinds of waste in specific garbage boxes or bags
greenhouse effect
the problem of the gradual rise in temperature of the earth's atmosphere, caused by an increase of gases such as carbon dioxide in the air surrounding the earth, which trap the heat of the sun
greenhouse gas
gas given off that damage ozone layer
ozone layer
a layer in the stratosphere (at approximately 20 miles) that contains a concentration of ozone sufficient to block most ultraviolet radiation from the sun
reforestation
(n) the act of planting new trees in an area where there used to be a forest
recycle
The process of making new products from materials that were used in another product.
wind energy
The energy captured by transforming the motion of air into electrical energy using a turbine
desertification
The process by which fertile land becomes desert,typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or agriculture.
bulb /bʌlb/
(also light bulb) the glass part that fits into an electric lamp, etc. to give light when it is switched on
to leak
to allow liquid or gas to get in or out through a small hole or crack
faucet (North American English)
Tap (British English)
a device that controls the flow of water from a pipe
to deplete
to reduce something by a large amount so that there is not enough left
to endanger somebody/something
to put somebody/something in a situation in which they could be harmed or damaged
extinction
The disappearance of all members of a species from Earth
to release something
to stop holding something or stop it from being held so that it can move, fly, fall, etc. freely
threat
threat (to do something) a statement in which you tell somebody that you will punish or harm them, especially if they do not do what you want
to raise awareness
to make people consciuous about a problem
acid rain
Rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water.
shelter
the fact of having a place to live or stay, considered as a basic human need
to soak up
to absorb.
to take in or absorb liquid
hazardous waste
Any material that can be harmful to human health or the environment if it is not properly disposed of
to sustain
to provide enough of what somebody/something needs in order to live or exist
devastating
wreaking or capable of wreaking complete destruction
detergent
cleansing agent
to donate
to give away.
To give money, food, clothes, etc. to somebody/something, especially a charity
device
an object or a piece of equipment that has been designed to do a particular job
flood /flʌd/
a large amount of water covering an area that is usually dry
to absorb
to take in a liquid, gas or other substance from the surface or space around
fertiliser
A substance added to soil to enhance the growth of plants.
air conditioner
a machine that cools and dries air
pesticide
A chemical intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops.
mercury
a chemical element. Mercury is a poisonous silver liquid metal, used in thermometers.
energy consumption
the act of using energy, food or materials; the amount used
finite energy
having a definite limit or fixed size
solar-powered
captures light from the sun and transforms it into electrical power
death of fish
death of something.
The permanent end or destruction of something
oil slick
a large area of oil floating on the surface of the sea or a river
at risk of extinction
endangered species
environmentally friendly
designed not to harm the areas in which we live
natural resources
valuable substances such as wood and oil that exist in a country's land and sea
climate change
the way the world's weather is being altered so that it is becoming warmer
natural disasters
these can cause a lot of damage or kill a lot of people, for example, floods or earthquakes
pollution
the process of damaging the air, water, or land with chemicals or other substances
deforestation
the process of removing the trees from an area of land
drought
a long period of time when there is little or no rain and crops die
conserve
to prevent land, water, or other natural resources from being damaged or destroyed
deplete
to reduce the amount of something or the number of things
eyesore
something that is ugly or unpleasant to look at, especially a building
global warming
the slow increase in the temperature of the Earth caused partly by the greenhouse effect increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
natural habitat
the type of place that a particular animal usually lives in or a particular plant usually grows in, for example a desert, forest, or lake
rubbish dump (landfill site)
place to dispose of garbage
waste disposal
kitchen sink unit for food waste.
management of refuse
sustainable development
supporting economy via renewable resources
carbon footprint
a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide that is produced by the daily activities of a person or company.
Environmental impact
overpopulated
having too many inhabitants
overfishing
catching too many fish in an area of the sea so that there are not many fish left there
battery farm
a farm where large numbers of chickens or other animals are kept in very small cages or crowded conditions
battery farming
the practice of keeping animals on a battery farm
clear up
to tidy
to make something clean and neat
landscape
everything you can see when you look across a large area of land, especially in the country
scenery /ˈsiːnəri/
the natural features of an area, such as mountains, valleys, rivers and forests, when you are thinking about them being attractive to look at
barren plains
flat land where little grows
population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
waterfall
A stream of water that falls from a high place.
rainforest
A tropical forest, usually of tall, densely growing, broad-leaved evergreen trees in an area of high annual rainfall.
cover in/with
something is over something.
ex: The ground was covered with snow.
consist of
is made or formed from
climate
weather conditions
come out
appear
ex: the sun came out after lunch.
thick/dense fog
a thick cloud of very small drops of water in the air close to the land or sea, that is very difficult to see through
mist
a cloud of very small drops of water in the air just above the ground, that make it difficult to see
heavy rain
a lot of rain (opp. light rain)
strong wind
a lot of wind
clear
no clouds
extremely
to a very high degree
pour
when it's pouring (with) rain, rain is falling heavily
shower
a short period of rain or snow (heavy/light showers)
storm
heavy rain with strong winds
thunderstorm
A small storm often accompanied by heavy precipitation and frequent thunder and lightning
thunder
the loud noise that you sometimes hear in the sky during during a storm
lightning
the bright flashes of light that you see in the sky during a storm
boiling
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas.
Very hot
freezing
very cold
cold = chilly
having a lower than usual temperature; having a temperature lower than the human body
warm
at a fairly high temperature in a way that is pleasant, rather than being hot or cold
cool
not very warm
heatwave
a continuous period of very hot weather
litter (n)
things that people have dropped on the ground in a public place, making it untidy
litter (v)
to drop litter
mild
mild weather is warm and pleasant