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From book: Elenetery Statics:a Step By Step Approach,by Allan G. Bluman

Lower Class limit

It represents the smallest data value that can be included in a class.

Upper Class limit

It represents the largest data value that can be included in a class.

Class Boundaries

These #'s are used to separate the classes so that there are no gaps.

Class Width

Class in a frequency distribution is found by subtracting the lower or upper class limit of 1 class from the lower or upper class limit of the next class.

Class midpoint

is the numeric location of the center of the class.

Open-Ended Distribution

It has no specific beginning value or no specific ending value.

Raw Data

When data are collected in original form.


# of values in specific class of distribution.

Frequency distribution

Is the organization of raw data in table form, using class and frequencies

Categorical Frequency Distribution

Used for data that can be placed in specific categories, (Ex. such as nominal or ordinal-level data.)

Ungrouped Frequency Distribution

when the range of data values is relatively small, a frequency distribution can be constructed using single data values for each class.

Grouped frequency Distribution

When the range of data is large, the data must be grouped into classes that are more than one unit in width(.Ex. distribution of the number of hours boat batteries last.)

Cumlative Frequency

The sum of frequencies accumulated up to the upper boundary of a class in the distribution.

Relative frequency graphs

used to distribution using proportions.

Frequncy Polygon

is a graph that displays the data by using lines that connect points plotted for the frequencies @ the midpoint of the class. the frequencies are represented by heights of the points.


is a graph that represents the cumulative frequencies for the classes in a frequency distribution.

Pareto Chart

Used to represent a frequency distribution for a categorical variable.

time sires graphs

Represents data that accord over a period of time.

pie graph

A circle,divided into according to the percentage of frequencies in each category of the distribution.


is a graph that is displays the data by using contiguous vertical but(Unless the frequency of a class is O) of various heights to represent the frequency of classes.

Stem & Leaf plot

A data plot that uses part of the data value as the stem & part as the leaf to form groups or classes time series graph. (represents data that occurs over a period of time.)

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