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CISA Domain 4—IS Operations, Maintenance and Service Management
Terms in this set (31)
Three principals of DBMS
HOR-relational, object, hierarchical
Relational Database Security
access controls, encryption, audit logging
This is simply one of the table's fields, whose values
is a field in a record in one table that can reference a primary key in another table
states that a complex transaction, which could consist of simultaneous actions on many records in many different tables, is performed as a single unit of work: either
it will all be completed properly or none of it will be completed. This helps to ensure the integrity of all data in the database management system and guarantees either the entire transaction is processed or not of it.
DRM - Digital Rights Management
provided a means for easily distributing content to large numbers of people is a set of emerging technologies that permits the owner of digital information (such as documents) to control their access, even after those documents are no longer contained in their environment
• Expiration- The owner of a file may be able to set an expiration date, after
which time the file cannot be viewed or used.
• Registration- The owner of a file may be able to require anyone viewing the
file to register themselves in a reliable way (such as through e-mail address
• Authentication- The owner of a file may be able to require that persons
viewing a file first authenticate themselves.
Software Program Library
facility that is used to store and manage access to an
organization's application source and object code.
This is a copy of all data that has changed since the last
This is a copy of all data that has changed since the last
full or incremental backup.
Full backup advantages & disadvantages
Advantage- Recovery requires just one single read form the backup storage device.No dependency between the two full backup. If one is lost you may use another recent full backup to recover certain amount of data, not everything.
Disadvantage-The type of backup cause longest type of outage during the backup time.It is the most expensive type of backup because it takes maximum amount of storage space among all types of backup.
It also takes much longer time to run than its other counterparts.
Differential backup advantages & disadvantages
Advantage- since differential backup takes backup of a series of changes since the last full backup, it requires less of number of backup sets to restore.They provide efficient recovery when full backup is taken rarely( e.g. monthly)
Disadvantage-The amount of storage required for a differential backup may exceed than that is required for incremental backup when significant amount of data changes regularly.
Incremental backup advantages & disadvantages
Advantage- Less media storage is required since it back up only the files that changed since the last backup.It take much less time in comparison to other types of backup.
Disadvantage- recover requires a full backup and all the incremental backup.A complete data recovery depends on the all the incremental backups and the last full backup.
1 Physical - ISDN (repeaters)
2- Data Link - MAC, ethernet, IEEE 802.11, Local talk, VLAN (bridges), switches
3- Network - routing, ip, icmp used to transfer data. Routers, layer 3 switches
4- Transport - (TCP Transport communication protocol) and UDP (and User datagram protocol), acknoledgement. Last chace for error checking
5- Session layers- establishes a session between the two devices
6 -Presentation- Encyrptioin TLS(transport layer security)
7 - Application- DNS, HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SNMP
To prevent network sniffing...
Auditing networks, always...
identify the importance & role of network device first
older and less secure TCP/IP protocols
TELNET, FTP, and RCP have been superseded by newer protocols such as SSH, SFTP, and FTPS.
uses symmetric, private key cryptography
represents the broad class of programs that support the development or use of network, systems, and applications. limit the use of utilities to those personnel whose responsibilities include their use. All other personnel should not be permitted to use them
Disadvantages of Ring Topology
A ring passing token:
1) slower than Star topology.
2) If one workstation or port goes down, the entire network gets affected.
3) Network is highly dependent on the wire which connects different components.
4) MAU's and network cards are expensive as compared to Ethernet cards and hubs.
Disadvantages of Bus Topology
nodes (computers as well as servers) are connected to the single cable (called bus), by the help of interface connectors. This central cable is the backbone of the network and is known as Bus (thus the name). Every workstation communicates with the other device through this Bus.
1) There is a limit on central cable length and number of nodes that can be connected.
2) Dependency on central cable in this topology has its disadvantages.If the main cable (i.e. bus ) encounters some problem, whole network breaks down.
3) Proper termination is required to dump signals. Use of terminators is must.
4) It is difficult to detect and troubleshoot fault at individual station.
5) Maintenance costs can get higher with time.
6) Efficiency of Bus network reduces, as the number of devices connected to it increases.
7) It is not suitable for networks with heavy traffic.
8) Security is very low because all the computers receive the sent signal from the source.
Disadvantages of Star Topology
all the components of network are connected to the central device called "hub"
1) Too much dependency on central device has its own drawbacks. If it fails whole network goes down.
2) The use of hub, a router or a switch as central device increases the overall cost of the network.
3) Performance and as well number of nodes which can be added in such topology is depended on capacity of central device.
Types of switches
Layer 2 Switches (The Data-Link Layer) operate using the data link (MAC) layer addresses. Link-layer, hardware, or MAC-layer addresses identify individual devices. Most hardware devices are permanently assigned this number during the manufacturing process.
Switches operating at Layer 2 are very fast because they're just sorting MAC addresses, but they do not look at the Layer 3 portion of the packet to learn anything more.
Layer 3 Switches (The Network Layer) use network or IP addresses that identify locations on the network. A location can be a LAN workstation, a location in a computer's memory, or even a different packet of data traveling through a network.
Switches operating at Layer 3 take more time examining packets than Layer 2 devices and incorporate routing functions to actively calculate the best way to send a packet to its destination.
Layer 4 Switches (The Transport Layer) -coordinates communications between systems. Layer 4 switches are capable of identifying which application protocols (HTTP, SNTP, FTP, and so forth) are included with each packet, and they use this information to hand off the packet to the appropriate higher-layer software. Layer 4 switches make packet-forwarding decisions based not only on the MAC address and IP address, but also on the application to which a packet belongs.
Point to Point- T1,2, 3
X.25-packet switched or virtual circuit
Frame Relay-packet switched or virtual circuit
MPLS-engineering network traffic patters that is independent of routing tables
1-Packet filtering- analyzes IP of sender, receiver and port. Simple & stable. Vulnerable to attacks (IP Spoofing, Source routing specifications, Miniature fragment attack)
2-Stateful inspection-keeps track of destination IP and recorded. Greater efficiency, more CPU & complex
3-Application firewall systems- analyzes protocol. Provides NAT. Poor performance
1-Screened-host- utilizes a packet filtering router & bastion host. Basic network layer & app security.
2-Dual-homed- two or more interfaces each connected to a different network.
3- DMZ/screened-subnet- utilizes two packet filtering routers & bastion host. Most secure since it provides network and app security with a separate DMZ network
Methods for network protection
Alternate routing-alternative meduim
Diverse routing - different cables
Long-haul network diversity-diverse long-distance network
CGI (common gateway interface scripts
executable machine independent, need to be closely evaluated as they may give unauthorized access
Downloaded from webservers used for input etc, manage access, they expose the user's machine if not properly controlled.
Runs within a web server environment. once started in memory it can fulfill multiple requests
Does not physically attach itself, it exploits a security weakness in OS configurations to propogate
is an umbrella term used to refer to a variety of forms of hostile or intrusive software, including computer viruses, worms, trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, scareware, and other malicious programs. It can take the form of executable code, scripts, active content, and other software.
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