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Chapter 4 Psychology Class Notes
Terms in this set (54)
An idea or belief on how people behave
Humans are made in the image of God and are unrelated to animals, the "mind" is an immaterial substance and will continue to exist after the body dies (67% U.S. believes), humans have free will, and mental health comes from recognizing God's purpose, choosing God and repenting sin
Judeo-Christian-Islamic Theory (circa 4000 BCE)
Continuity of brain and behavior with animals, empirical evidence of life after death is non-existent, and good and evil are relative
"Problems" with Judeo-Christian-Islamic Theory (circa 4000 BCE)
The mind is clear of ideas and beliefs, molded by the environment and experiences, each experience shapes who an individual becomes, & by changing one's environment and experience, an individual can be shaped into a different person
DWEM Theories: The Blank Slate-John Locke
The mind cannot be a blank slate because then it would not have the ability to learn or apply knowledge (e.g., language).
Problems with the DWEM Theories: The Blank Slate-John Locke
U of Mn, Thomas Bouchard (1981)
Famous twin study
Identical twins raised (reared) together
Identical twins raised apart
Fraternal twins raised together
Siblings raised together
Siblings raised apart
The difference between identical twins raised together and identical twins raised apart are due to...
The difference between identical twins raised apart and siblings raised apart are due to...
nature and nurture
Behavior is due to...
why we are different
Behavior genetics tells us...
J. Dunn, 1992
adopted individuals are no more similar to biological parents than adoptive parents in terms of personality, adopted individuals have a higher IQ than biological parents, and adopted siblings are no more (in terms of IQ, personality traits) than strangers
Adoption study showed...
How much a difference in a test score is due to genetics, how much a test score difference is between a set of identical twins
The proportion of variance in a trait that correlates with genetic difference
Examples of this...
the lower heritability will be
The more genetically similar two people are...
when it is coming from different people (genetically) in similar environments
when it is coming from genetically similar people in similar environments
Heritability will always be highest...
Heritability will always be lowest...
The First Law: Genes (.5)
The Second Law: Share environment (0-.1)
The Third Law: Unique environment (.5)
The Three Laws of Behavioral Genetics...
the effect of being raised in the same family is smaller than the effects of the genes
The Second Laws shows...
a substantial portion of the variation in complex human behavioral traits is not accounted for by the effects of genes or families.
The Third Law shows...
differing nutrition and varying levels of toxic agents.
share the same prenatal environment.
Identical twins don't necessarily...
most similar in psychological traits than those who have separate placentas.
Twins who share the same placenta are...
a large number of neural connections and then undergo pruning which is evident by puberty.
Prenatally, we develop...
"use it or lose it" rule.
Neural connections follow the...
overall brain architecture, but experience directs the details.
Our genes dictate our...
This helps develop the brain's neural connections
Rats reared in an enriched environment develop a heavier and thicker ____________ __________ than rats in an impoverished environment.
This causes infant rats and babies to develop faster neurologically.
stimulating infant care.
Children from impoverished environments score better on IQ tests if given...
Examples of this is preschoolers who won't eat a food they don't like despite urgings from parents, will eat it if at a table with kids who like it.
Individual slogans, catch-phrases, melodies, icons, inventions, fashions, etc.
Cultural mutations. They complete to be copied and passed on.
Examples of this include...
internal abilities thoughts, and feelings, being unique and expressing the self, realizing internal attributes and promoting one's own goals, & being direct in communication
Independent (individualist) includes an emphasis on:
external, public features such as status roles, and relationships, belonging and fitting, occupying one's proper place and engaging in appropriate action, & being indirect in communication
Interdependent (collectivist) includes an emphasis on:
A contagious information pattern that replicates by parasitically infecting human minds and altering their behavior, causing them to propagate the pattern
Women enter puberty earlier (12.5 years vs. 13.5 years), live longer (79 years vs. 72 years), & have more fat and less muscle (28% fat vs. 21% fat)
Women are more likely to have depression, anxiety, or eating disorders
Men are more likely to have autism, ADHD, and antisocial personality disorder
Women & Men: Mental and Behavioral Health
Men behave more aggressively than women, men committee more violent crimes than women, & men have more physical aggression rather than verbal or relational aggression
Men: Gender and Aggression:
Women seek the "tend and befriend" response
Women are better at listening
Both men and women turn to __________ when they want someone to talk to because:
Women change roommates more often then men, women tend to have stronger ties to friends and family, and women are often more involved with religion
Gender and Social Connectedness: Women
When boys play, the focus tends to be on the activity, male play is more competitive, & men tend to dictate how the playtime will proceed
Gender and Social Connection: Play- Men
When women play, the focus tends to be on connection and conversation, female play is more social, and girls tend to invite more feedback
Gender and Social Connection: Play- Women
Gender intelligence, how we negotiate the world and our lives, & our concept of numbers, objects, & living things
Similarities between men and women
perceptual (knowing what is and what is not in a room) speed, memory of displayed objects, verbal recall, precision manual tasks (fine motor skills), & mathematical calculation
Differences: What women do slightly better than men...
Mental rotation of an object, target-directed (gross) motor skills, matching lines with identical slopes, & mathematical reasoning
Differences: What men do slightly better than women...
Men chase status at the expense of families
Life Priorities: Men
Women tend to gravitate toward "people oriented" fields
People vs. Things and Abstract Rule Systems: Women
Men outnumber women in 14 of 16 categories of risk-taking (also win virtually all Darwin awards- people who do stupid things and die, and therefore, do not pass on those genes)
Male variance is greater than female variance