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Biology Final MC Questions
Terms in this set (38)
What is the general goal of reproductive cloning?
To produce a new animal
How does the process work?
1. Remove nucleus from egg of surrogate mother.
2. Cells from adult "genetic parent" grown in lab.
3. Electrical pulse fuses enucleated egg with cells of nuclear donor, stimulating mitosis
4. Implant embryo into uterus of surrogate.
Pros of reproductive cloning:
Agricultural benefit (livestock)
Biological research (control for genetic variation)
Medical use (e.g., raise animals for organs used in transplants)
Rescue of endangered species
Cons of reproductive cloning:
Animals have identical immune systems due to the lack of genetic diversity.
What are embryonic stem cells, and what purposes might human ES cells be used for?
Embryonic stem cells are derived from a human embryo in early stage of development. Embryonic stem cells have the potential to develop into all the specialized cells of the body. Human ES cells can be used to supply new tissues for people who have damaged/diseased tissues.
What are some of the issues (both practical and ethical) that some people have with using human ES cells?
Growing enough cells in the lab
Getting them to differentiate into the desired cell type(s)
Long-term transplantation success
Ensuring cells do not cause harm (e.g., by causing tumors/cancer)
Ethical objections: removal of ES cells destroys an embryo
How do ES cells differ from adult stem cells?
Embryonic stem cells have the potential to develop into all the specialized cells of the body, while adult stem cells can only differentiate into specialized cell types of the tissue or organ in which they are found.
Characteristics of Bryophytes
Mosses do NOT have:
•Lignin (chemical that hardens cell walls)
•Vascular tissue (transport system)
So...limited to small size & moist environments
Characteristics of Seedless vascular plants
Ferns do have vascular tissue: tubes to transport water & nutrients
But no seeds—still depend on moist environment for fertilization
Ferns produce spores
Characteristics of Gymnosperms
Gymnosperms include coniferous (cone-bearing), needle-leaved trees
•They have vascular tissue and seeds
•But no flowers; seeds are "naked"
Characteristics of Angiosperms
•Angiosperms have flowers that produce pollen
•Seeds are enclosed in fruits (ovaries of flower)
•More than 90% of existing plant species are flowering plants.
4 Tissue types in angiosperms
Parenchyma: have thin cell walls; Serves diverse functions, including photosynthesis and food storage
Collenchyma: Provides mechanical reinforcement in young, growing parts of the plant (have some areas of thick cell walls, others thin)
Sclerenchyma: Thick-walled cells provide mechanical strength; often dead when mature
Vascular Tissue: Made up of long cells that form continuous tubes:
Phloem transports food such as sugars made through photosynthesis (from where to where?)
Xylem transports water and mineral nutrients (from where to where?)
Angiosperm organs: What are the major structures and functions of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers? What are examples of how these structures are modified to serve alternate functions?
Anchors plant in the soil
Absorbs and transports water and minerals
Made up of stems, leaves, and reproductive structures (flowers).
Modified stems include runners, rhizomes and tubers
Rhizomes: Store food and allow asexual reproduction
Tubers: Store food and allow asexual reproduction
Runners: Allow asexual reproduction
What is the difference between pollination and fertilization?
Flowers: What is pollination, how does it work, and what parts of the flower are involved in each step?
Pollinator-plant coevolution: What are the benefits to both species? Can pollination occur without a pollinator?
Pollination and fertilization are different through the fact that pollination leads to fertilization. Pollination is just the process of transferring the pollen to the stigma. This can be done through either self pollination, or cross pollination. Cross pollination is when there are outside agents, like animals, people or the wind, to facilitate the transfer of pollen from the STAMEN to the STIGMA. While pollination also only applies to flowering plants, as they are the only ones producing pollen. Fertilization applies to almost everyone in nature and there can be no fertilization if there is no pollination.
Plants evolve traits that are most likely to attract the pollinator that can do the best job of spreading their pollen; pollinators evolve ever-more adaptations to get the rewards that the flowers provide for their services. This is mutually beneficial. Because the pollinators get nectar and the plant gets pollinated.
Pollination CAN occur WITHOUT a pollinator. Some plants self-pollinate, and the wind can also lead to pollination.
Fruits: How are seeds produced, and where are they found? How do seeds get dispersed to new places to grow?
When the pollen grains land on the stigma, the pollen makes a tube in which it releases sperm to fertilize the eggs produced by the ovules at the base of the carpel. Those fertilized eggs will ultimately become the seeds, and the ovary that houses them will become the fruit.
Seeds get dispersed by animals that eat the sweet fruits tend to move around and defecate out the seeds (in nice little fertilizer packets!) in different locations as they move away from the parent plant.
Structural organization hierarchy in animals:
Homeostasis: What is it? What is the difference between positive and negative feedback mechanisms, and which is more important for maintaining homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the body's tendency to maintain relatively constant conditions even though the external environment changes.
Positive feedback leads to more of the same whereas in a negative feedback loop if something goes up, then an action makes it go back down. If it goes too low, then an action makes it go back up.
Negative feedback is more important for maintaining homeostasis. Works like a thermostat.
4 major tissue types in humans:
Epithelial: -Sheets of tightly packed cells in a continuous layer -Covers surface of body, and lines organs/cavities within the body
Connective: -Cells scattered through a "matrix" of biological molecules in either liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation -This kind of tissue binds and supports other tissues
Muscle (3 types): -Bundles of long, thin, cylindrical cells and stacks of proteins -Cardiac muscle (involuntary), Skeletal muscle (voluntary), Smooth muscle (involuntary)
Nervous: Communicates sensory input to part of the body that needs to respond. (dendrites)
How do the roles/functions of the circulatory and respiratory systems differ from each other?
The respiratory system facilitates gas exchange. The circulatory system transports these gases.
Respiration: What are the 3 phases of gas exchange? How does the process of breathing relate to cellular respiration?
1. Breathing 2. Transport of gases by the circulatory system 3. Servicing of cells
For cellular respiration to occur, your cells need oxygen and they need to expel carbon dioxide as a waste product.
Respiration: How does air reach the lungs, and how does gas exchange occur between the lungs and the circulatory system at the alveoli?
Air reaches the lungs by first going through the nasal cavity, then the pharynx, then the larynx, then the trachea, the lungs, the bronchus, and finally the alveoli.
In the lungs, gases are exchanged between alveoli and tiny blood vessels (capillaries) by diffusion.
•Which gases are going in vs. out? Carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli and oxygen diffuses into the capillaries.
•Why does this happen?
What is the difference between the pulmonary and the systemic circuits?
The pulmonary circuit pumps blood from the heart to the lungs. The systemic circuit pumps blood from the heart to all of the body's cells.
Know basic path of blood through the heart and to the lungs and body.
Oxygen-depleted blood enters into the right atrium and moves to the right ventricle. Then, the oxygen-depleted blood moves through the pulmonary artery out to lungs to pick up oxygen and deliver carbon dioxide. Then, this oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart through the left atrium to the left ventricle, through the aorta and is pumped to the rest of the body's cells. After the oxygen has diffused out of this blood, it becomes depleted and picks up carbon dioxide and the process begins again.
What are the major components of blood and functions of different types of blood cells?
Red blood cells transport gases and white blood cells protect the body from harmful pathogens.
What are the differences between the main types of heart chambers and blood vessels; what are their functions?
The atrium is where blood enters and the blood is pumped by the ventricles.
Link structure to function: what is the reason for the difference in thickness of atria vs. ventricles, and capillaries vs. veins vs. arteries?
Ventricles pump the blood while the atria simply receive it. The capillaries are thin for gas exchange. The veins are thinner than the arteries because they carry blood to the heart whereas the arteries carry blood that is being pumped away from the heart.
Atherosclerosis and heart attack
Atherosclerosis is the gradual narrowing in arteries by plaques of cholesterol and other substances. Fatty plaques narrow the space, and blood clots can form.
If the coronary artery which supplies the heart with oxygen-rich blood gets clogged a heart attack can occur.
External Immune System: What are the body's physical and chemical external barriers?
Physical barriers: epidermis, nostril hairs, cilia and mucous membranes
Chemical barriers: saliva, tears, and sweat all have high salinity which can act as an antibacterial
Internal: Innate Immune System:
What do phagocytes do?
Phagocytes eat the invaders and then die. This is a nonspecific immune response to pathogens.
What happens during an inflammatory response to fight infection?
1. Skin is torn. 2. Damaged cells and mast cells release histamine and cytokines. 3. Histamine dilates blood vessels and makes them "leaky" so that macrophages can migrate toward the wound. 4. Macrophages and other WBCs engulf bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis. 5. Platelets from blood plasma enter the damaged area to help heal the wound.
What is the role of histamine and why would people take antihistamines?
Histamines send signals to produce an inflammatory response to a pathogen. If someone has an overreactive innate immune system then mas cells release alarm signals to things that are NOT pathogens. This is when you want to take an anti-histamine.
What are antigens?
Foreign substances that elicit an immune response
What are the similarities/differences between 2 types of lymphocytes: B cells and T cells? Which ones produce antibodies, and how do they work as a "specific" response to antigens?
Both specialize in recognizing and targeting specific antigens. B cells produce antibodies. They use a lock and key system. They can attach to only 1 kind of antigen. T cells: cell-mediated immune response (one-on-one attack)
What does it mean to say that the immune system has a memory, and how does this relate to vaccines?
The first time a pathogen enters the body, it takes several days for the immune response to build to its peak...and the overall response is relatively weak. The 2nd time a pathogen enters the body, the immune system can respond quickly and vigorously. This is why a weak strain of a pathogen is injected into the body when people are given vaccines.
What are autoimmune diseases?
Autoimmune diseases occur when our immune systems mistakenly make antibodies against our own body's molecules.
What is the evolutionary advantage of sex? How does this relate to how gametes are produced?
Sex shuffles up genes. In meiosis shuffling occurs in crossing over and independent assortment.
Structure and function of gonads in males (testes) and females (ovaries)
Testicles make the sperm. Ovaries support the egg/eggs.
Major characteristics of each stage in the process of human sexual reproduction: Ovulation & sperm production => Intercourse => Fertilization of egg by sperm in fallopian tube => Implantation of embryo in uterus => Nourishment from placenta and development of fetus => Birth
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