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Demonic Males: Ch 4, 6, 10

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Who are the Yanomano? Where do they live? Why are they of interest to anthropologists?
Yanomano: A cultural group of some 20,000 people living in Southern Venezuela and Northern Brazil in the lowlands forests of the Amazon basin
- They are still the largest tribe on Earth that hasn't been pacified, acculturated, destroyed, or integrated into the rest of the world
In what kinds of fighting (levels of aggression) do the Yanomano engage? What causes fights? How do they carry out raids?
- As a village grows, blood ties dilute - Some minor event -> squabble -> fight -> complete rift
- Nomohori -> Sneak attack or Wayu -> Raid
- Fights are caused by failed agreements, sexual jealousy, suspicion of adultery (most often over women)
How does lethal raiding among the Yanomano give the raiders genetic success?
The strongest fighters, unokais, have more than 2.5x the average number of wives as other men, and more than 3x the average number of children
How does Yanomano raiding compare to chimpanzee raiding?
- Both groups are kinship groups based on aggregates of closely related males and unrelated females who have emigrated from other kinship groups
- Both raidings take place when a subgroup of males deliberately invades the recognized territory of a neighboring community
What tactic was found to be most characteristic of primitive war?
The tactic of surprise
What determines whether or not battles among the Mae Enga of New Guinea become lethal?
Strength of alliances
Why do foragers share?
- They share because they scold any attempt of one man trying to make himself better than his fellows
- Their relationships are only involved within a community group
What do statistics suggest about the notion of the 'gentle forager'?
64% engaged in warfare once every 2 years
26% fought less often
Only 10% never fought
What does the ethnographic (cross-cultural) record tell us about human societies and the warrior class?
Even though there must be primitive societies with far lower rates of killing, modern life is on average less violent
What is temperament?
The emotional element of personality. It consists of an individual's emotional reactions to situations in the real world
What is the cross-cultural record regarding women's participation in war?
Most societies around the world restrict women entirely from participating in war & usually even from involvement in planning or discussing it
What is the pattern of violent crime with regard to gender?
The gender of the criminal population correlates predictably with the violence of the crime - Males 8x more likely to commit a crime
What are examples of conquering armies committing rape?
- Japanese Army paused in Dec. 1937 to rape 20,000 women in the former Chinese capital of Nanking
- All-male army of Pakistan raped between 200,000 & 400,000 unarmed Bengali women
What are some of the consequences of patriarchy?
The regimentation of Muslim women, Chinese foot-binding, wife beating, polygyny
What is matriarchy? Is there any evidence for its existence? Where?
Matriarchy: A society where women rule in a system that mirror patriarchy
- There has been no convinced archaeological or anthropological evidence for its existence
Are the !Kung San completely egalitarian in terms of gender roles? Give evidence.
Yes, ex: women are not suppressed or dominated or subject to sexual exploitation, women participate in fights
- Rape is rare, men do most of the fighting
Is patriarchy a cultural invention? Give evidence to support your answer.
Patriarchy IS NOT a cultural invention, it is an intimate part of human biology
- Origins detectable to the social lives of chimps
- Emerges from men's temperaments, out of their evolutionary derived efforts to control women & men at the same time
When were bonobos discovered to be a separate species?
Fall of 1928 - German anatomist, Ernst Schwarz, released that bonobos were a separate species
- 50 years later, bonobos entered the world of modern science
When did bonobos branch off from chimpanzees in the evolutionary ladder?
Bonobos are smaller than chimpanzees - Their heads are small and their arms & legs are long - their faces are blacker and they have pink lips
- Their ancestors separated long after their common split from the gorilla ancestor
- Best imagined as descended from a chimpanzee-like ancestor, rather than chimps from a bonobo-like ancestor
- Split sometime between 1.5 & 3 million years ago
Why don't bonobo males exert their physical power over females?
They don't exert their physical power over females because the sexes are co-dominant
What determines rank among the bonobo?
Your rank depends on who you are, not what sex you are
What is the most important relationship for male bonobos? Why?
The mother-son relationship is the closest bond there is between mates & females - males whose mothers are alive tend to be high-ranking
- Even the highest-ranking male can be defeated when females gang up on him
What is the key to male gentleness among bonobos, according to Wrangham?
Female Power
What bond makes female bonobos such reliable, predictable supporters of each other? How are these bonds formed?
- The bonds among females come not from kinship, but from experience, making female bonobos reliable
- The newly arrived adolescent must work to develop her support network
What is hoka-hoka and why is it important?
Sex between an older female and an adolescent female
- Important b/c it deepens the relationship, forms a friendship, and allows for the adolescent to integrate herself into the new community - security + support
What are the similarities and differences between male-on-male chimpanzee aggression and male-on-male bonobo aggression?
Similarities:
- Males compete for status and form hierarchies
- Males try to intimidate each other & attack one another
Differences:
- Bonobos aren't willing to risk a lot for the alpha male position
- Bonobos fight less often
Characterize bonobo sexual habits. For what purposes do bonobos use sex?
Bonobos have sex as a way to make friends, to calm someone who is tense & to reconcile after aggression
How is intercommunity violence reduced among the bonobo?
Different communities meet and engage in sexual encounters w/ ppl from other community
How do male chimps hunt? What is blood lust?
- They kill often, try to seize prey leading to fights, charges and screams of rape
- Blood lust: thrilled apes tearing apart and devouring prey
What does Wrangham suggest are the reasons why bonobos don't hunt?
As they evolved to bonobos, males lost their demonism, becoming less aggressive. Lost lust for hunting monkeys, less excited by prospect of kill + more sympathetic to victim
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