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autosomal recessive trait where individuals lack the enzyme to break down homogentisic acid; characterized by black urine
bread mold used by Beadle and Tatum to show that mutation in a specific gene caused loss of activity in a specific enzyme
Diversity of Proteins
results from the number of possible combinations of the 20 different amino acids
used by Crick & Brenner to discover the number of nucleotides required to encode one amino acid
transfer of information from the base sequence of DNA to the base sequence of RNA; occurs in nucleus
conversion of information encoded in the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA molecule into the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein; occurs in cytoplasm
an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to a specific nucleotide sequence in the DNA adjacent to a gene and unwinds the DNA
precursor molecule that are processed in the nucleus to remove introns, or cut and spliced to remove introns
contains a binding site for a specific type of amino acid and has a three-base segment that recognizes a specific base sequence in mRNA
group of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that pairs with a complementary sequence in an mRNA molecule
set of proteins present in a particular cell at as specific time under a particular set of environmental conditions
pleated structure in a protein molecule brought about by bonds between amino acids
structure formed by the interaction of two or more polypeptide chains in a protein
muscle contraction, transport, immune response, nerve impulse transmission, phenotypes of cells/tissues/organisms
points on the polypeptide chain mirror points on the gene; if there is a break toward the end of the gene, the chain will have a break t the same point
sequences that allow polymerases to bind to the DNA strand before reaching the open reading frame
allows for the possibility that a single gene can produce more than one type of protein
process in which polypeptides are chemically modified after being created
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