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The basic function of all hormones in the human body.

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

causes thyroid gland cells to secrete T3 and T4; stimulates thyroid growth

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

WOMEN: initiates growth of ovarian follicles each month and stimulates ovulation; MEN: stimulates sperm production

Luteinizing hormone

WOMEN: regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development; MEN: testosterone production


targets the mammary glands stimulating them to produce breastmilk

Growth Hormone

affects size of an individual by promoting cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol


promotes the utilization of fat by the body and is a precursor to the endorphins

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

causes melanocytes to releases melanin (creates a tan)

Antidiuretic Hormone

promotes water retention, in high concentrations is also a vasoconstrictor. both of these effects raise the blood pressure


induces contraction of the uterine muscles during childbirth and causes the mammary glands to eject milk during nursing

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone

signals the pituitary gland to release TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

this hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone

signals the release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary

Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone

inhibits the release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone

signals the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary

Prolactin Releasing Hormone

stimulates the release of prolactin from the pituitary


plays a critical role in preventing abnormal consciousness transitions, particularly into REM sleep; may stimulate hunger


neurotransmitter; endocrine function = inhibits prolactin release


targets the brain to control circadian rhythms and circannual rhythms, and may be involved in maturation of sex organs


thyroid hormone similar to thyroxine but with one less iodine atom per molecule and produced in smaller quantity


hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells


Produced by the thyroid gland and decreases the blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones (__________ keeps the bone in). The antagonist of the parathyroid hormone.

Parathyroid Hormone

Increases blood levels of calcium (stimulates breakdown of bone and rate at which calcium is removed from urine and absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract)


Produced by the thymus gland during childhood, this hormone stimulates T-lymphocyte development and differentiation.


involved in T-cell differentiation and enhancement of T and natural killer cell actions


Function not well understood, affects nuclear architecture, two receptors specific to __________ have been found on human T-cells


Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.


The antagonist of insulin. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, its primary target organ, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood.


Works w/ insulin & glucagon to maintain normal blood sugar


adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster


noradrenaline; chemical which is excitatory, similar to adrenaline, and affects arousal and memory; raises blood pressure by causing blood vessels to become constricted


"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. Na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure


secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels and suppressing immune system function


a hormone produced by the placenta prior to labor, causes the ligaments within the pelvis to loosen


antagonist to inhibin: enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle


antagonist to activin: inhibits FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion


The chief estrogen, females produce more than males, develops and maintains female secondary sex characteristics, important roles in menstruation and pregnancy


a naturally occurring weak estrogenic hormone secreted by the mammalian ovary


One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with estrogen to control the menstrual cycle. Also secreted to prepare and sustain the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy

Anti-mullerian Hormone

In male embryos, turns off the development of a uterus and other female structures.


The male sex hormone produced by the testes which promotes the maturation of the reproductive system, development of the male secondary sex characteristics, and is responsible for sexual drive (libido)


strongest androgen; principally responsible for masculinization in sexual differentiation


a weak androgen; a precursor for other androgens and also some estrogens


a weak androgen; the chief androgen produced by the adrenal cortex


a major estrogen during pregnancy, the estrogen synthesized by the placenta

Human Placental Lactogen

This hormone ensures a sufficient supply of protein, glucose, and minerals are available to the fetus.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

stimulates the corpus luteum to grow and secrete estrogen and progesterone at a higher rate; pregnancy tests work by detecting this in women's urine


steroid hormone produced by the kidneys in response to the presence of PTH; stimulates calcium and phosphate ion absorption in the digestive tract; the active form of Vitamin D


a neurotransmitter involved in sleep, depression; precursor of melatonin

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

A peptide hormone secreted by cardiac atrial cells in response to atrial distension (increased blood flow); causes increased renal sodium excretion and as such lowers blood pressure (antagonizing aldosterone).


hormone the small intestine secretes to stimulate release of pancreatic juice from pancreas and bile from gallbladder


released by the stomach in the presence of food; gastrin promotes muscular activity of the stomach as well as secretion of hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen, and mucus


secreted by gastrointestinal tract; enhance glucose-stimulated release of insulin; inhibit glucagon


A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.


a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach

Peptide YY

neuropeptide secreted in the small bowel and colon; signals appetite suppression

Neuropeptide Y

neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus, that stimulates eating behavior and reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain


a protein secreted by fat cells, when abundant causes the brain to increase metabolism and decreases hunger.


appears to increase insulin effects (sensitivity); anti-inflammatory and anti-arthrogenic

Retinol Binding Protein 4

Function not well understood; secreted by adipocytes (fat cells) and may communicate signal low blood sugar; recently associated with the development of insulin insensitivity


prohormone produced by the liver then converted by renin to angiotensin I, then that is converted by ACE to angiotensin II which is a vasoconstrictor


vasoconstrictor that results in an increase in blood pressure

Insulin-Like Growth Factor

circulates in blood plasma and directly stimulates bone and cartilage growth


inhibits iron uptake, prevent release of iron


stimulates production of platelets


stimulates the production of red blood cells


enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I


an innate brain and spinal cord endorphin that blocks pain signals (opioid)


have an immediate, short-term localized effect, involved in inflammation and pain, blood flow, and blood clotting, as well as other factors


fatty molecules of the immune system that regulate inflammation, especially in the lungs; they are heavily involved in the problems associated with asthma and bronchitis


chiefly prevents formation of the platelet plug in hemostasis (part of blood clotting); it does this by inhibiting platelet activation; antagonist to thromboxanes


a vasoconstrictor and a potent hypertensive agent, and it facilitates platelet aggregation; antagonist to prostacyclins

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